(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The self-instructor in textile designing;"

Class 
Book 



COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT 




■■^ '" ■'■- 




C&. C& VCfc^^I*^/ 



THE 



IN 



L 

OR, 



A Practical Guide in Designing & Weaving. 



AN INSTRUCTOR & GUIDE ADAPTED TO THE REQUIREMENTS 

OF ALL ENGAGED IN THE ART. 

ILLUSTRATED WITH 

THREE-HUNDRED FIGURES REPRESENTING SINGLE, DOUBLE, 
TRIPLE AND COMBINED WEAVES IN VARIOUS FORMS OF CON- 
STRUCTION AND COMPLETION, THE PRINCIPAL METHODS OF 
ATTACHING BACKS TO FABRICS, AND EIGHT CLOTH SAMPLES 
MADE SPECIALLY TO DEMONSTRATE THE PRINCIPLES OF THE 
WORK, INCLUDING A FANCY PICKOUT SHOWING FIVE METHODS 
OF REDUCING AND WEAVING THE SAME; DIAGRAM OF PATTERN 
SHEET ; ALL MANNER OF STOCK FIGURING FROM THE WOOL 
IN THE GREASE TO THE WOVEN STATE, INCLUDING MAKING 
MIXES; ALSO YARN TABLES, RULES, CALCULATIONS, ETC., ETC. 

The Most Practical and Complete Work on Designing and 
Weaving Ever Offered to the Craft. 




ft 

<&* cO pYRl 

BY A. A. 'BALDWIN, 

AUTHOR OF 

"A Treatise on Designing and Weaving Plain and Fancy Woolen Cloths," "The Designers' 
Chart," and "The Loom-Fixers' Manual." Also ex-Editor and Publisher of "The Designer 
& Weaver" — 1SS0-1, — and "Baldwin's Textile Designer" — 1SS8-9,— both monthly publications. 



►Brasher Falls, N. Y. : 
AMOS A. BALDWIN, PUBLISHER. 

1890. 






K 






<$ 



V 



Entered according 
to Act of Congress, in 
the year 1S90, by 
A. A. BALDWIN, 
In the office of the 
Librarian of Congress, 
at Washington, D. C. 



1 



s 



1 



% 



PREFACE, 



PREFACE. 



II N fulfilling a task so difficult as that of writing a "Self- 
Instructor in Textile Designing," the author feels it a 
[ duty to state the causes which led him to undertake it, 
"■ and the principles which have guided him in carrying 
it to a conclusion. First, to overcome past failures in books 
relative to the Art, by demonstrating in a comprehensive 
manner such points as have heretofore been ignored by their 
authors; or, points on which they failed in conveying to the 
reader the intended meaning. Second, to produce a self -in- 
structor founded on practical experience and study of the 
art; a work demonstrating so plainly, with the assistance 
of the cloth samples made specially for it, that all who will, 
may comprehend the whole and thus be their own instruc- 
tor. Third, to spread a knowledge of designing as widely 
as possible among those who have not the advantage of 
personal instruction. 

Furthermore, the author wishes to place in the hands 
of would-be designers such a work on the subject as will 
enable them to understand more clearly, and comprehend 
more thoroughly the details and technicalities of the art. 
That he has succeeded in this, and in bringing the rudiments 
of designing to that state of perfection wherein they can be 



4 PREFACE. 

easily learned, and practically applied by those who are 
dependent almost wholly on books for their instruction in 
designing 1 , will, he believes, be conceded by all fair-minded 
persons capable of judging. 

The aim has been to lay before the craft a plain, clear, 
practical view of all the rudiments required to be known by 
those who are interested in an art, the fundamental princi- 
ples of which have been heretofore but very imperfectly 
demonstrated in books. Although not intended as a literary 
production, and although apparently small, it is believed 
that the work covers the entire field of designing for which 
it is intended. That it may succeed in awakening among 
the craft the same interest in its subject-matter which called 
it into existance, is the earnest desire of the author. 

A. A. BALDWIN. 
Dec. 18, 1890. 



CONTENTS, 



CONTENTS. 



CAHPTER I. 

Page 

Hints to Would-be Designers , . . . 9 

CHAPTER II. 
Delicacy and Correctness of Taste. ... . . . . 13 

CHAPTER III. 
How to Become a Designer. . . . . . . . • 15 

CHAPTER IV. 

Explanation of Signs and Characters used in Design- 
ing. — Mathematical Signs 18 

Fractional Equivalents in Percentage. . . . . 10 

Design Characters 20 

CHAPTER V. 

Explanation of Different Terms used by Designers. 20 

CHAPTER VI. 

Hints on Preparing and Examining Samples before 

Dissecting . . . . . . . . • • 24 

CHAPTER VII. 

The Process of Dissecting and Layingout for the Fab- 
ric, Illustrated — with Pickout, and Cloth Sample. 20 
To Find the Number of Threads in the Warp. . . 31 
To Find the Amount of Yarn Required for Warp. 32 

To Find the Required Reed. 33 

To Find the Amount of Yarn Required for the Filling. 34 
To Find the Number of Sections and Number of Spools 

Required Up. . . . . • • • • • • • • 35 

To Find the Number of Yards Required on Each Spool. 30 

The Dressing or Warping. . . . . . . . . 37 

To Find the Number of Heddles Required on Each 

IJarness when Using a Cross Draft 37 



6 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Estimating the Per Cent, to allow for Loss of Stock 

During the Process of Manufacture. . . . . 41 

Rule for Adding Percentage. 42 

CHAPTER IX. 

Estimating the Per Cent, of Colors in Mixes, and of 

Different Wools in Batches 45 

To Find the Amount of Each Color Required in a Batch, 

the Size of Batch and Per Cent, being Known. 45 

CHAPTER X. 

Figuring the Shrinkage of Wools and Their Cost 

when Scoured 47 

To Find the Shrinkage of Unscoured wool 47 

To Find the Cost of Scoured Wool, the Market Price 

and Shrinkage being Known. 47 

To Find the Amount of Wool Required in the Grease 
to Produce a Given Amount Clean, the Shrinkage 
being Known 48 

CHAPTER XI. 

Dressing Pattern Warps and Weaving Pattern Sheets 49 

— Pattern Sheet Illustrated by Diagram. . . 52 

Figuring on the Weight of Cloth from Loom. . . 53 

CHAPTER XII. 

Three Methods of Attaching a Back to Fabrics — fully 

Demonstrated with Cloth Samples. . . . . 55 

CHAPTER XIII. 
Combining Weaves Illustrated. . . . . . . 68 

CHAPTER XIV. 
The Analysis of Double Weaves — Their Construction 

and Stitching — Demonstrated with Cloth Sample. 81 
CHAPTER XV. 

The Construction of Triple or Three-ply Weaves — 

Demonstrated with Cloth Sample. . . . . 90 

CHAPTER XVI. 
Relative Lengths Per Pound of Woolen, Worsted, 

Cotton, and Silk Yarns — their Explanation. . . 99 



CONTENTS. 7 

CHAPTER XVII. 

Samples of Fabrics with General Instructions for 

Making Them— Eight Samples 102 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
Miscellaneous Weaves. . . . . . . . . . . 107 

CHAPTER XIX. 
Designing Broken Twills or Satin Weaves. . . . . 117 

Rule for Designing Satin Weaves. . . . . . . 122 

"Double Satin Weaves." 123 

CHAPTER XX. 
Yarn Tables, Rules and. Calculations. — Table Showing 

the Number of Yards Per Pound of Woolen Yarn 

From | Run to 20 Runs 126 

Table Showing the Number of Yards Per Pound of 

Worsted Yarn from No. 1 to No. 120 127 

Table Showing the Number of Yards Per Pound of 

Cotton, or Spun-Silk Yarn from No. 1 to No. 90. 128 
Table Showing Equivalent Numbers by the Run, Cut 

and No. System, for Woolen, Worsted, Cotton 

and Spun-Silk Yarns 129 

Table Showing the Weight in Grains of 50 Yards of 

Woolen Yarn, from 1 Run to 20f Runs. . . 130 

Rules to Find the Size of Different Yarns, by Grains, 

without Reference Tables 131 

Rule to Find the Number of a 2 or 3-ply Thread, in 

Worsted and Cotton Yarns 132 

Rule to Estimate the Weight of Fabrics by the Weight 

of One Square Inch 133 

Weight Table in Grains. — Rule to Find Average Picks 

Per Inch in Uneven Cloths. — Cotton Yarn Table. 134 

Linen Yarn Table.— Cloth Measure Table 135 

Raw or Tram and Organzine Silk Yarns 136 

CHAPTER XXI. 

Weaving Right and Left-hand Twills, on Cam and 

Chain Looms — Illustrated 137 

CHAPTER XXII. 
Directions for Making Wool Mixes. — Conclusion. . . 141 
A Centennial Calendar. 145 



ERRATA. 



ERRATA, 

On page 32, twentieth and twenty-first lines, read "into* 
5 warps, will give 440 yards per warp of 12 cuts, — that is 36f 
yards per cut or piece," instead of "into G warps, will give 
350 yards per warp of 10 cuts, — that is 35 yards etc." 

On page 93, Fig. 8, bar 3, read "■■■■■□■■□■■*," instead 
of "■MMM3wnnnnt." 

On page 129, in table, second column, read "20i runs," 
instead of "29^." Also, in fifth column, read "35f Nos." 
instead of "36f" 

Besides the above, there are on other pages misprint 
and typographical errors, but none that will in any way 
lead the reader astray or change the general meaning. We 
acknowledge, howewer, that such are due to carelessness 
in proof reading and hurrying the work. 



THE 




OR, 



A Practical Guide in Designing it Weaving. 



-o- 




CHAPTER I. 

HINTS TO WOULD-BE DESIGNERS. 

ESIGNLTSTG is that branch of textile manufacturing 
which requires each and every part thereof to be 
performed both accurately and thoroughly. These 
results cannot be expected from the novice, nor 
from a person of no taste in the calling, as such can be 
accomplished only by those who have more or less of the 
natural qualifications for it. These qualifications are by no 
means of a superficial nature. The designer, like the artist, 
ought to possess an unlimited fancy, a strong and lively 
imagination, a refined taste and good judgment. Of these 
qualification, the judicious cultivation of taste should not 
be neglected, for upon this largely hangs his fate. 

Taste, (which will be more fully spoken of in another 
chapter) is not simply an inborn faculty requiring no further 
thought on the assumption that nature controls its actions; 
but is an intellectual faculty, a perceptive power depending 
on education and exercise nearly as much as any faculty of 
the mind. It must not only be cognizant of the beautiful, 
but trained by art to a familiarity with the laws»governing 
it. What can appear more offensive to a person of delicate 
2 



10 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

taste than a design crowded with an incongruous assem- 
blage of colors? Good taste never changes, but fashion 
changes often. 

If the designer is employed in a mill of limited facilities 
in the dyeing and weaving departments, it stands him in 
hand to bring forth his best skill in the display of colors., 
novel mixes and weaves in order to produce sufficient diver- 
sity in his patterns. His work is certainly very tedious 
and trying under the most favorable circumstances. 

A design must be developed in the mind, to a certain 
extent, before it can be committed to paper. Originating a 
texture does not complete the whole; everything pertaining 
to the manufacture of the fabric in its finished state, must 
be taken into consideration. Even then, the design would 
he almost useless should it call for expenditures too great 
for the manufacturer to reap any profit from it. Hence, it 
will be seen that, in the designing of a fabric, all details in 
relation to its manufacture, appearance, sale, etc., must be 
fully considered. The would-be designer wlio expects to 
perform these duties in their entirety, must train his mind 
to a realizing sense of the importance of every detail, as 
well as to patience and perseverance. The lack of these vir- 
tues have, without doubt, been the means of discouraging 
many a promising young-man from following this vocation 
who might, in time, have mastered the art. 

The time has passed, when the would-be designer can 
reasonably expect to reach the highest degree of success 
while he neglects to educate himself for his vocation. As 
well might the lawyer, the physician, or the clergyman ex- 
pect distinction who ignores the necessity of mastering the 
principles of his particular port ession. There are text-books 
for the design student as well as for those in other pursuits, 
and he should study them as the law student would "Black- 
stone," or other similar works, until he is familiar with 
their teachings. He, who plods on in ignorance of the 
progressiveness in these modern times, can only look for 
success to what may be termed fortunate accident. 

The true designer is not one who gets his ideas from 



TEXTILE DESIGNING, 11 

the patterns of others, but is a man of original power, "who 
knows when to design, what to design and how to design 
it: how to apply colors, and what colors are required for a 
particular effect to meet the wants of the fastidious public. 
He understands the principle of arranging colors so as 
to produce the strongest, as well as the faintest effect; 
and also that of the weave to use. He knows that in the 
arrangement of colors, some will have more brilliancy and 
effect when placed together than when placed separately or 
beside of others. This arises neither from taste nor imagi- 
nation, but is founded upon nature and may be explained by 
the principles of optics. He knows that the seven prismatic 
colors — red. orange, yellow, green, blue, violet and purple, 
— have the same relation to each other as the notes in an 
octave of music; and that the effect, produced by artfully 
disposing of these kindred colors, is no less pleasing to the 
eye, than is the concord of musical sounds grateful to 
the ear. 

Colors, therefore, with respect to the effect which they 
produce, may be properly arranged under two heads, 
namely: those which are contrast rug, and those which are 
h a rut on iz in a. The contrasting colors are those most opposed 
to each other; the harmonizing colors are those intermedi- 
ate tints which lie between the contrasting ones, and, as it 
were, blends them together. 

Contrasting colors may be discovered by a simple 
experiment. For example, place a red wafer on a sheet of 
white paper and look at it steadily until the eye becomes 
tired when a ring of green will begin to appear around its 
edge, and even after the eye has been removed to another 
part of the paper the green ring will be visible. Hence, 
green is said to be the contrasting color of red, and red the 
contrasting color of green. In like manner it wull be found 
that purple is the contrasting color of yellow; blue, of 
orange; violet, of a mixture of yellow and orange; and 
black, .of white. 

The compounds of these colors will also have their con- 
trasting colors. Thus, purple inclining to red. has for its 



12 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

contrasting color, yellow inclining to green; purple, inclin- 
ing to blue, has yellow inclining to orange; likewise with 
the other compounds. On the other hand, a harmonizing 
color will be the nearest tint to the original, but farthest, 
except the original, from the contrasting color. Yellow is. 
therefore, the harmonizing color of white; orange, of yellow; 
red, of orange; violet, of red; and blue, of violet; etc. 

Different shades of the same color, such as light and 
dark green; light and dark red; light and dark blue, etc., 
when they are distinct, likewise form very bold contrasts. 
But when the same color runs through a variety of shades 
from a very dark to a very light tint, such tints approach 
to the nature of harmonizing colors. 

It is an established fact that there are persons who find 
it very difficult to distinguish one color from another, in 
consequence of which they make mistakes that appear per- 
fectly incomprehensible to a person of ordinary vision. 
Taking, for instance, red for green, is one of the mistakes 
most frequently made among this class who are called 
color-blind. A person thus afflicted, cannot reasonably 
expect to succeed as a designer of textile fabrics. To suc- 
ceed in this business, a man should have good eye-sight, 
should be quick to discern colors, and well versed in their 
effect. He will, if possessed of these qualities, be much 
benefited in the early stages of his pursuit. 

The procuring of a great variety of samples, of different 
styles, and examining into their construction even to the 
minutest detail, is of no small importance. This kind of 
experience will greatly assist the beginner in putting into 
shape such textures or ideas as his own fancy suggests; at 
the same time he should avoid as much as possible a certain 
sameness of style. His taste in this direction will govern, 
in no small degree, his peculiar "style" ever after. Hence, 
good taste is essential in every part of designing. 

We will now bring this chapter of ''hints'' to a close by 
saying to the would-be designer, do not wait to obtain your 
knowledge entirely by the slow process of personal experi- 
ments; but study the published experiences and demon- 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 13 

strated theories of writers on questions that underlie manu- 
facturing. If you will but study, and try to profit by such 
teachings, keep a complete record of your own experience 
with different weaves and combinations as applied to differ- 
ent colors and mixes, their effect on the different grades of 
yarn, and gather knowledge from all other available sources, 
you may with proper care, close attention and practice after 
the theory is thoroughly understood, reasonably anticipate 
success. — "Knowledge is power." 



CHAPTER II, 

DELICACY AND CORRECTNESS OF TASTE, 

Since taste has such a controlling power in every class 
of textile designing, and, at the same time, it is so difficult 
to distinguish between the good and bad, it may be well to 
present here a few brief remarks as to the true standard 
by which the taste of different designers may be compared 
with each other in order to discriminate between the true 
and the false. 

In some men only the feeblest glimmerings of taste are 
visible, and things which they call beautiful are of the 
coarsest kind. Even of these, they have but a week and 
confused impression; while in others, taste rises to an acute 
discernment, and a lively enjoyment of the most refined 
ideas. In general, we may remark that in the powers and 
pleasures of taste, there is more reasonable inequality 
among designers than is usually found in point of common 
sense, reason and good judgment. 

The characteristics of taste are all reducible to two, 
namely: delicacy and correctness. 

Delicacy of taste represent, principally, the perfection 
of that natural sensibility on which taste is founded. It 



14 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

implies those finer organs of power which enables us to dis- 
cover beautiful points that lie hid from the vulgar eye. One 
may have a strong sensibility, and yet be deficient in deli- 
cacy of taste. He may be deeply impressed by beauties as 
he sees them, but he perceives only what is in some degree 
coarse and bold, while the more chaste and simple beauties 
escape his notice. In this state, taste generally exists among 
those of an uncultivated mind. A designer of delicate taste 
sees both keenly and accurately. He sees distinctions and 
differences where others see none, while the most simple 
thing does not escape his notice; he is also sensible of the 
slightest fault. 

Delicacy of taste is judged by the same tests that we 
use in judging of the delicacy of an internal sense. As the 
acuteness of the palate is not tested by strong flavors, but 
by a mixture of ingredients, when, notwithstanding the 
confusion, we become sensitive of each. In like manner 
delicacy of taste is shown by a quick and lively sensitive- 
ness of the finest as well as the most potent objects. 

Correctness of taste represents chiefly the improvements 
which the faculty has received through its connection with 
the understanding. A designer of correct taste is one not 
easily imposed upon by counterfits — who carries in his mind 
that standard of good sense which he employs in judging 
of everything. He estimates with propriety the comparative 
merit of the several beauties which he meets with in any 
work of genius; refers them to their proper classes, discovers 
the principles, so far as they can be traced, on which their 
power of pleasing depends, and is pleased himself precisely 
in that degree, in which he ought, and no more. 

It is true that these qualities of taste, delicacy and 
correctness, mutually imply each other. No taste can be 
thoroughly correct without being delicate; but still a pre- 
dominancy of one or the other quality in the subject is often 
visible. The power of delicacy is chiefly observed in dis- 
cerning the true merit of a work; the power of correctness 
in rejecting false pretentions to merit. Delicacy leans more 
to feeling: correctness more to reason and good judgment. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 15 

The former is more the gift of nature; the latter, more the 
product of culture and art. 

From the above we desire the reader to understand that 
a designer— in the full sense of the term— ought to possess, 
like the poet and artist, an unlimited fancy together with a 
strong and lively imagination, in order to be deeply im- 
pressed with the objects of his work, and thus be able to 
bring out the principal effect in his designs. 



CHAPTER III. 

HOW TO BECOME A DESIGNER. 

Without doubt there is not a question relating to the 
manufacture of textile fabrics which is asked so often, and 
with so much earnestness, and usually receives such indif- 
ferent answers, as that of the young man who asks: "How 
can I become a designer?" 

In nearly every case the young man asking this ques- 
tion feels that the circumstances which surround him are 
such as absolutely forbid his attending a designing school, 
and not knowing of a good competent designer who would 
personally instruct him in the rudiments, he turns away 
discouraged. 

It is for such young men that this chapter is intended. 
In it we shall endeavor to answer the question before us by 
speaking of those points which we know, from actual expe- 
rience, are necessary in order to become a designer. And, 
when we speak thus, we mean a designer in the full sense of 
the term. Nearly any person, with a common-school educa- 
tion, may become a designer theoretically, but only a few 
become a designer practically. Hence, the former class we 
shall not take into consideration, but will call the reader's 
attention wholly to the latter. 



16 THE SELF-INiSTRUCTOR, 

First, the four principal rules of arithmetic should be 
thoroughly understood. 

Second, a man should be gifted with good taste, good 
judgment aud originality. 

Third, he should have a fair knowledge of the mechan- 
ism of looms. 

With these qualifications — even without a common- 
school education or attendance at a designing school. — it is 
safe to predict that a man may l>ecome a designer. To 
aid him in the undertaking, he should purchase such good 
practical books, relating to the art. as he can afford: books 
written by practical men capable of handling the subject, 
but st ear clear of those written by amateurs, or wholly from 
theory. After purchasing such books, study them carefully. 
Remember, that the watch-words of designing are. think. 
study, advance: Think at all times: study in all places: 
advance by degrees. One hour of earnest thought upon a 
subject after studying it. will advance him more than ten 
hours of continuous reading. The young man who persi>t- 
antly follows this course will not down: but will certainly 
come to the front, even though he has many jealous 
opponents working against him. 

Looking on the practical side of the question, the young 
man should carefully study the class of goods with which 
he comes in daily contact. A long time occupied with one 
pattern may seem like waste of time, but if the pattern be 
once thoroughly understood he has travelled a long way on 
the road leading to the comprehension of many others. 

By understanding a pattern, we mean not only under- 
standing how it was woven, but how it was made in general: 
the size of yarns, ends in warp, picks, stock, colors, propor- 
tions of each. and. in fact, every thing pertaining to its 
general construction. Nor is this all: every item in this 
direction should be recorded and compared with his every- 
day experience. After extracting satisfactory information 
from one pattern, take up another of a different style and 
go through it in the same manner as before: a comparison 
of the first pattern, with that of the second, will give him 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 1? 

some idea of the latitude that is to be experienced as a 
designer of textile fabrics. 

If the young man has the true designer's instinct, these 
investigations will have an absorbing interest; they will 
open up in his mind a field for thought that will in after 
years bring forth better results than any school of design, 
so called. 

Designing is an art, which is advancing with time. 
Although new ideas are not originated every day. yet 
almost every day is productive of new novelties by some 
designer gifted with originality, or by an attractive com- 
bination of old-time novelties. Hence, it will be seen that, 
the young man who starts out to follow this profession, and 
is determined to reach the goal of his ambitjon, must be 
ever on the alert for new ideas; and when brought in con- 
tact with new novelties, he should be ever ready with his 
pencil to sketch all attractive features from memory — if 
impossible to procure a sample of the fabric. For this pur- 
pose, he should have a scrap-book in which to make such 
sketches, and keep samples for future reference. By this 
means, he will obtain many valuable ideas which otherwise 
might never have come to his mind. 

When an idea is obtained in this manner, proper atten- 
tion should be paid in detail to its execution. If a stripe or 
plaid is required in several colors, skill should be displayed 
in their arrangement ; the effect is invariably spoiled when 
some unsightly color predominates. 

If mixes are wanted, good judgment should be displayed 
in the percentage to use of each color, as a little out of the 
way here may spoil what would otherwise have been a 
creditable result. Better have a less pretentious design, with 
colors creditably displayed, than one too pretentious in 
both texture and colors. 

There is another feature to this question, of which we 
wish to speak before closing, and which should be borne in 
mind, namely: the exercise of good judgment in the selec- 
tion of stock, and in deciding the size to spin the yarns. 

There are too many designers, whose judgment in this 

3 



[n THE" SELF- INSTRUCTOR, 

respect, is as execrable as their mechanical execution may 
be commendable. In other words, from a purely mechanical 
standpoint,, their productions may be comparatively fault- 
less, yet, they invariably display a lack of judgment and 
appreciation in the "eternal fitness of things, " which robs 
the goods, as it were, of their merits. In this profession, 
as in all others, skill, directed by practical knowledge, will 
prove the victor. 

Again, it will be well to remember, that whatever 
prominence is attained by the young man of to-day, in the 
art of designing, must, properly speaking, be the result of 
his own industry and perseverance. Both in the mill and 
out of it, he should be of an inquiring mind, ask for, as well 
as give explanations, and make friends of those who are 
willing to exchange knowledge with him. 



CHAPTER IV. 

KXPLANATION OF THE SIGNS AND CHARACTERS 
USED IN DESIGNING. 

The necessity of introducing certain mathematical 
signs into a work of this kind is unavoidable, and perhaps 
by some beginners the use of these signs may not be fully 
understood — especially by those of a limited education in 
the use of figures. It is for this class of readers that the 
following explanations are intended. 

MATHEMATICAL SIGNS: 

-f- Addition. 
— Subtraction. 
X Multiplication. 
-r Division. 
i= Equality. 
c fo Per Cent, 
-f- The sign of addition when placed between two num- 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 19 

feers, or in a row of various numbers, signifies that they are 
"to be added together; the result obtained is called the sum 

— The sign of subtraction, when placed between two 
numbers, signifies that one number is to be subtracted from 
the other; the result obtained is called the difference or 
remainder. 

X The sign of multiplication, when placed between 
two numbers, signifies that one number is to be multiplied 
by the other; the result obtained is called the product. The 
multiplicand is the number which is multipled by another; 
the multiplier is the number by which the multiplicand is 
multiplied. 

-r The sign of division, when placed between two num- 
bers, signifies that one number is to be divided by the other; 
the result ohtained is called the quotient. The number 
which is divided by another is called the dividend; the one 
by which it is divided is called the divisor. 

— The sign of equality when placed between two num- 
bers, signifies that what stands before it equals what comes 
after it, whether it be the "'sum." ''remainder?' "pmdnct." 
or "■quotient." 

$ The sign of per cent, is used for the words percent., 
meaning by the hundred. Thus, 20$ of a number equals 
T 2 Tl " (T or \ of the number; 50$ equals ^ or \ of the number, 
etc. Hence, it will be seen that, percentage or per cent, is 
an allowance made by the hundred. The base of percentage 
is the number on which the percentage is reckoned. This 
is fully illustrated by the following table. 

FRACTIONAL EQUIVALENTS IN PERCENTAGE. 
50$ =.50 =£. 16fcfc=.16t= \. 6^—06^^, 

33£$=.33i= i VBJ—.V2\ — h 5$ =.05 =^. 

25$ =.25 =i. 10$ =.10 = T 1 ¥ . 3i$-=.03^=3V. 

20$ =.20 =|. 8^$=.08|= T V 21$=.02|= T V 

The characters used to represent the working of threads 
in a weave, design, texture, or fabric, differ among design- 
ers as well as among publishers of textile works, each using 
them according to their own liking. Hence an explanation 
of the characters used by us both in designing and in our 



30 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

publications is in order. When originating a design, or dis- 
secting a sample, we use this character X to represent a 
riser, or in other words, a thread up; to represent a sinker, 
or in other words, a thread down, we skip one small square 
of the design paper without making any mark. If we wish 
to designate the points of binding — as in case of a double 
weave or backing, — we use this character to represent a 
binding riser, and this character • to represent a binding 
■sinker. Sometimes we bring into play these two latter 
characters for pointing out certain peculiarities in a design. 
In the publishing business, we use the following 

DESIGN CHARACTERS: 

■ This represents a common riser. 

# This represents a binding riser. 

□ This represents a common sinker. 

o This represents a binding sinker. 

Of the different styles of characters used in publishing 
in this line — and there are many of them — the above are far 
ahead of all others. They are not only tasty and compact, 
but show up a design to the best advantage. 

Characters are sometimes used, by both the designer 
and publisher, over the top and at the side of a design to 
represent certain parts or threads, instead of writing out 
and printing the particulars in full each time. When 
such is the case there is, or ought to be, a reference made 
to the fact in the subject-matter. 



CHAPTER V. 

EXPLANATION OF DIFFERENT TERMS USED BY DESIGNERS. 

There are so many different terms used by designers, 
and so many of which mean the same thing in mill par- 
lance, that we deem it best to present here a few words of 
explanation in regard to the relation these terms bear 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 21 

to each other, and their proper use and full meaning as 
applied in this line of industry. 

Dissecting, ] 

Picking Out. 

Pattern Picking, } are synonymous terms, which mean, 

Drafting, 

Copying, J 

taking a piece of fabric and picking the threads out from 
each other in rotation, and marking down on design paper 
the same in detail, for the purpose of ascertaining how it 
was woven, the number of threads in warp, picks per inch, 
different colors, proportions of each, kind of stock and size 
of yarns; also all other points necessary in order to imitate 
the fabric. Therefore, the beginner should bear in mind 
that no matter how, or where, these terms are used in con- 
nection with textile designing, they mean one and the same 
thing. The term "dissecting" is, generally speaking, the 
most proper, although "picking out" and "drafting" are 
often used as the most natural, while "pattern picking" and 
"copying" are used the least of all. 
Pickout, 



WeavmgPlan, ^ are sy* 101 ^ 1110118 terms applied to the 

Texture, j 

full plan of interweaving the threads in a fabric; the plan 
being obtained by dissecting a fabric, or from origination. 
This result is then reduced (if possible, and found necessary) 
to its lowest term for finding the weave, and drawing-in 
draft. If, after dissecting or originating a design, it is 
found that it cannot be reduced, it would be taken as the 

Weave, 



Harnes^Chain f a11 of which are synonymous terms, 

Pegging Plan, J 
and apply to the setting of that part of the loom which 
causes the harnesses to work up and down in their respec- 
tive order. The term "pegging plan" is seldom used except 
in connection with looms not having the roller and tube 
system of chain. 



22 - THE SELF- INSTRUCTOR. 



are synonymous terms, and 



Drawing-in Draft, 

Cross-drawing-in Draft. 

Harness Draft. 

Heddle Draft, 

Cross Draw, 

apply to drawing the warp threads into the heddles in the 
order as required on each harness. 

If figures are employed to represent threads in the 
drawing-in draft, each number is to represent one thread, 
and to be drawn into a heddle on the corresponding number 
of harness: If characters are employed, then each charac- 
ter will represent a thread to be drawn into a heddle on the 
number of harness in line of the character. Harnesses 
should always be numbered from the front of loom to the 
back or rear harness in their numeral order, as 1. 2, 3, 4. etc. 

The above is fully demonstrated by the following 

illustrations: 

Fig. 1. 

6 6 6 6 

5 5 5 5 

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 

3 3 3 3 

2 2 2 2 

1 1 1111 1 

Fig. 2. 

□MnanannnKiqqjcqnrinni 



5 t xmtt m ■ man 

' T3 



Har Nos J 4 nnnanananian inMMntxiMnnnHnMnc 



2 umrr a inmmwjz Smut 

Fig. 1 illustrates the drawing-in draft of a six-harness 
herring-bone and basket pattern, made out with figures: 
The position of these figures clearly indicate which is the 
front of the draft; hence it is not necessary that the har- 
ness numbers be placed at the left. 

Fig. 2 represents the same draft made out with charac- 
ters, and the harness numbers given at the left. If these 
numbers were not so placed, the drawer-in would have no 
practical guide to follow; therefore, it is always best to 
mark the harness numbers at the left of the draft, which- 
ever way it is made out, to avoid mistakes. 

The figure method is more practicable for general use 
in mills; the character method is better adapted to publish- 
ing, hence the reason of its being used so commonly. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 23 

Straight Draft, ) 

Draw-in straight across, [■ are synonymous terms signi- 

Straight Draw, ) 

fying to commence with the front harness and draw a 
thread on each harness in numeral order to the back; thus 
continuing throughout the warp. 

Binding, ) 

Stitching, [• are synonymous terms, and in this work 

Tying, ) 
apply to certain threads or parts of a texture which unite 
separate weaves, one above the other, in such a manner that 
when cloth is woven from them the result is one fabric; or, 
in other words, unite fabrics of the same or different weaves 
so that they appear and in fact become one. This is 
accomplished by the warp of one being interwoven with 
the filling of the other, or vice versa; but it should be done 
in such manner as not to interfere with the general appear- 
ance of the top weave or face of the cloth. Hence, it will 
be seen that, the points selected for binding must be where 
the filling of one, and the warp of the other meet, so that 
there will be no chance when they do meet of one shoving 
the other up to the surface. 

The amount of binding is governed by the designer's 
option. If he desires a tight and hard-feeling cloth, he will 
bind the weaves as often as practicable; while on the other 
hand if a loose and soft-feeling cloth be desired, he will 
bind the weaves only as often as necessary to properly hold 
them together. Whether it be desired to have the binding 
of a tight or loose nature, the same principle should be 
adhered to in regard to the point or place of binding. 

The beginner will observe from these remarks that he 
should possess a thorough knowledge of this branch of 
weaving. 



M THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 



CHAPTER VI. 

HINTS ON PREPARING AND EXAMINING SAMPLES 
BEFORE DISSECTING. 

There is an unlimited number of styles in woolen 
fabrics, all of which are dissected on the same principle: 
but there are different methods of preparing samples for 
dissecting, and determining the warp and filling, which 
we will endeavor to explain in a comprehensive manner. 

When having in hand, to dissect, a sample of the much- 
felted kind with more or less nap on one or both sides, the 
nap should be removed by shaving it off; or, by holding the 
sample over a burning match until the nap is evenly singed, 
then, with a knife, scrape off the burnt nap. Now, if the 
threads do not show up clear on both sides, repeat the oper- 
ation until they do, leaving the threads bear on both the 
face and back of sample. 

Now, with the dissecting instrument, — which should be 
a small, round, sharp-pointed awl, or a large needle fastened 
into a handle suitable to the hand — remove a few threads 
each way of the sample, and by carefully testing their 
strength, and the amount of twist in them, it may be easily 
determined which are the warp and which the filling, as 
the warp is supposed to be the harder twist and stronger 
yarn of the two. 

The above manner of ascertaining which way the warp 
and filling run in the sample, is necessary only with those 
of plain-face; as those having figures or stripes of different 
yarns and colors, or a combination of weaves, make this 
point discernible in the sample at once. There are, how- 
ever, samples in which it is almost impossible to distin- 
guish the warp from the filling except by backing threads 
which if found to run one way only, may usually be 
considered as filling - . But if backing: threads are found to 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 25 

run both ways, those in the warp are not usually as coarse 
as those in the filling. 

There is another class of fabrics in which it is almost 
an impossibility to distinguish the warp and filling ways of 
a sample except by dissecting and studying it out from the 
appearance of the pickout; in such cases a man must be 
pretty well versed in weaves or he will be led astray. 

Again, there is a variety of fabrics which are woven 
with what we call the square and evenly-balanced weaves; 
that is, they have the same number of threads in the text- 
ure both warp and filling ways, with the same number of 
risers and sinkers. With this class of fabrics, it makes no 
material difference which side up or which way a sample 
is dissected, the result would be the same. 

There is also a class of weaves, and goods, to which we 
wish to call the beginners particular attention. They are 
known as "corkscrew" weaves, and the goods are usually 
made of worsted, or an imitation of worsted yarns. These 
goods are woven with an odd number of harnesses and bars 
of chain — both the number of harnesses and bars of chain 
being equal when weaving plain, — such as 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 
etc. ; but when weaving in dots or figures of fancy colors, 
the chain draft often exceeds the drawing-in draft several 
times over and vice versa. 

It would be very difficult for a beginner, not acquainted 
with "corkscrew" weaves, to take a plain sample all of one 
color, cut square, and tell either by the yarn or from the 
pickout which is the warp way, and which the filling way. 
However, this may be readily determined by the twill or bias 
rib, which runs more biassing or diagonally across the fabric 
the filling way, — the least bias running the warp or length 
way of the fabric— being just opposite from what a person 
would naturally think from general appearance, and never 
having seen the goods in a full piece or made up. 



•■><] THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE PROCESS OF DISSECTING AND LAYING OUT 
FOR THE FABRIC ILLUSTRATED. 

Having explained the signs, characters and principal 
terms used in designing, and also the manner of preparing 
samples for dissecting, we will now proceed with the dissect- 
ing of a sample in the full sense of the term. For the pur- 
pose of illustrating the operation, and to show the beginner 
more fully whereof we speak, the author has expressly 
designed and made the following fabric: See sample card. 
Sample No. 1. 

By referring to this sample it will be seen that it is 
composed of two diagonal stripes with a basket stripe run- 
ning between them, at each side of these there is a series 
of narrow herring-bone stripes forming a stripe a trifle nar- 
rower than the two diagonals and basket, making in all a 
combined stripe, or pattern, of about 1| inches in width. 
A glance at the sample is sufficient to show that the stripe 
runs with the warp the short way, and that the filling runs 
right and left the long way, also that it contains two com- 
plete patterns; but as the sample was cut through the centre 
of one of the diagonal stripes, it leaves eight or ten threads 
at the right of the herring-bone stripe. 

Now in making ready to dissect fancy patterns, bear in 
mind to commence at some distinct point in the pattern 
when possible to do so; that is to say, commence at the 
beginning of a stripe or figure whether the same was pro- 
duced in dressing the warp, or in weaving. For instance, 
with this sample, it would be proper to commence on either 
side of the herring-bone stripe, or with the basket stripe, 
and pick out to another similar point in the sample; this 
will produce the pattern on design paper undivided, while 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 27 

if it were commenced in the middle of the herring-bone, or 
either of the diagonal stripes, it would divide that part of 
the pattern and not produce as good an appearance on the 
paper; besides too, it would divide both the dressing pattern 
and drawing-in draft, thus giving the work a more compli- 
cated appearance. This should be avoided if possible, and the 
pickout made to appear as simple as possible. Of course it 
does not, generally speaking, make any material difference 
at what place in a sample you commence to dissect; for if 
you pick out to the commencement point the result will be 
the same. But always commence at the right-hand side of 
a pattern and pick to the left, setting the result clown on 
design paper working to the left. We are well aware that 
all designers do not agree with us in this manner of work- 
ing, as some commence at the left-hand side and work to 
the right, but practical experience will prove that the form- 
er way is the better for general convenience. 

The manner of holding the sample is as follows: Place 
it in the left hand over the first or index finger, then bring 
the thumb down on one side and the second finger up over 
the sample on the other side; with the thumb and second 
finger draw "the sample down tightly across the first finger. 
Now take the dissecting instrument in the right hand, with 
it raise and pull out the filling threads until about i-inch 
of the warp threads are free and clear of the filling across 
the sample, or as far as necessary to pick out, width way. 
Now cut off a few of the warp threads on the right-hand 
side of sample, down to the filling, and in for about ^-inch. 
Our sample in the present instance has, as before stated, 
eight or ten threads of the diagonal stripe left at the right 
of the herring-bone stripe; we will therefore cut off these 
threads in to the first thread of this stripe, which, as will be 
seen by referring to the sample, is a red and green double 
and twist thread, (usually written D. & T. thread). This 
being a fancy thread, and the first one come to in the her- 
ring-bone, we will take it as the guide thread or starting 
point. Every thing now being in readiness for operation, 
the dissecting is continued in the following manner. 



28 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

With the dissecting awl, raise a filling thread up loose 
from the others and on examination we find that it passes 
under the first two warp threads; now as these two threads 
must have been raised in order to admit the filling passing 
under them, we call them two up and mark down the same 
on design paper thus X X, then over the top of these char- 
acters write down the color and kind of thread each char- 
acter represents. Now pass these two threads to the right 
and under the second finger. Examine the next threads in 
rotation (being careful not to get them crosswise of each 
other), and we find there are three of them down in succes- 
sion, under the filling thread; now as these threads must 
have been sunk in weaving to admit the filling passing over 
them, call them three up and note the same on design paper 
by passing three blank squares without making any mark, 
or by marking down three dots thus ■ • • , after which the 
color and kind of thread is written over the top of each char- 
acter as before, then pass these threads to the right, under the 
second finger. In this manner proceed to the left marking 
down the warp threads as they appear over and under the 
filling thread, whether one or more at a time, until a repeti- 
tion of the work is found, or in other words, the full width 
of the weaving plan. This brings us to a place in the pat- 
tern corresponding to the place where we commenced. Now 
pull out this filling thread, No. 1, and write down the color 
with other particulars, if any, at the right. Now loosen up 
another filling thread and proceed in the same manner as 
before, except there will be no writing down of warp threads 
as that was done away with in picking out the first thread. 
The filling threads ought to be marked at the right of the 
pickout only as they are taken out one at a time, and this 
is not necessary unless there are two or more kinds of 
filling. After taking out the second filling thread, then take 
up the third, and so proceed until the twelfth thread is taken 
out, which brings us to a repetition in the weaving of the 
warp threads; that is, the thirteenth thread is found to be 
the same as No. 1, thus making a repeat in the pickout both 
warp and filling ways. This gives us what is called a 



,^)-i«-^„ 



£•2 c 6 °"2 

•x'-o*-hmmmmpmppppmp4 ppmppp 

a.Mio unHWliaMIS PMPH 

8Atio pmppp: :■: :mmmm«. MPr 

9«ioppppm. :mmmmpmi n 

saiio ppmpmmmm. i«uP2 Si upmp 

^At[OB ■■■■ 

MinAv : :■ :* :: » » * « * » 
o»u T a\ ■■: ■ :: ■ ;mm~> : :■: :: 
ajiqM ■■■■ ■ ; :: ■ ;t ■ 

H1U[AN ■ ■■■■ ■ ■ 

aitqM :::;■::■■■■: :m:"ip2 Br . ■ ; 
swqAi: :: :: :■. ;■■■■: mi a. m 
e.Mto ■■■■: :■: :: :: :mp4 ppmpl 

9AITO ■■ 

eAiTo : ■ :. :: ■ :■■■■•; mp; 
eAiio™ ; ■ mi ii n i; :■ 

»Aiio ppmpmmmmpmp: 12 n: : ■ 1 
9ai IO m pmmmm: ■ : pp3pppmpii 
,.»ui«: :■: ;::: :::■; ■■■■<• ■ 
ejiqAv mm: :■; :: :: :■: ■■- pmpp: 
Giiqw ■■■■:■: ;: ■ 1 ■ 

9}iq.Y\ ■ ■■■■ ■ :•'! ■ 

ajiq.vv: ;: ■ ■■■■ ■ :: ■ 

..iiq.\\ ■ ■■■■ ■! : ■ 

9Aqo ■■■■: :mp: :: :mp4 □□■□nn 
9*iio ■■::■::: .: :■::■■- : ■ 
9ai I0 pmpp: r. :mpmmmmk mppppp 
9ai{oppppmpmmmmpmi pppppm 
9A110 ppmpmmmmpmpp2 ppppmp 
9ai[ mpmmmmpmpppp3 □□□■en 
gjiqMOBnnnnBi-MBMBii mppppp 
siiqAv mmpmppppmpmms pmppph 

84tq^ MMMMPMPPPPMP4 PPMPPP 
9».qA MPMMMMPMPPPP3 PPPMPP 
9)M» PPMPMMMMPMPP2 PPPPMP 
9irFUiPPPPMPMMMMPMl PPPPPM 
9aiio MMMMPMPPPPMP4 PPMPPP 

9Ai t o ■■□■;■;: ippmpmm* pmpppl 
•<M[o; ;■; ;: :: ■ mi ■ 

9Ai[opnPPMPMMMMPMl PPPPPM 

9ajioPPMPMMMMPMPP2 PPPPMP 

'X'-H'-HMPMMMMPMPPPPS PPPMPP 



■6-8S 89-^BtI aag ss9UJBq qoB9 joj saippgq 
jo jgqrann p9jml>9i eq T 9aiS \\iti. Mjba\ aqj m stu9 T ,B<l ,,o J9qmuu aqj A"q paiiiiijitun ji 'ptiB 
: nj9H«d 9no ni 'rjrranJBq qoB9 no UA\Bjp spB9jq} jo jgqtuun gq, }H9B9jJ9J sgjnag gsaqx 



cc^rcccr^t^t^iot' 




8PPPPMPE. 

:::■:; 
4Ppppppppmpc 
spppppppmpppp 
6l3pppppmppppp 
1pppppppppppm 
2ppppppppppbp 
3pppppppppmpp 
12mppppppppppp 
upmpppppppppp 
10ppmppppppppp 
it. .:..■.... 

8PPPPMPPPPPPP 
7PPPPPMPPPPPP 

4nppppppp)ippp 
•spppppppmpppp 
6ppppppmppppp 
ippppppp :: 'i ::m 

2PPPPPPPPPPMP 

. snppppp 3PPMPP 

9iiq.viPMPL IlPMPMMMMfi MPC 3 12MPPPPPPPPPPP 
9j,qM MMPMPPPPMPMM1 PMPl PP UPMPPPPPPPPPP 

9}iq.w mmmmpmppppmqi ppmppp ioppmpppppppp 

atiq.vi ■PHMMHPBPPPP3 PPPMPP 
9jiqA\ PPMPMMMMPMPP2 PPPPMP 
9 T iq.*v PPPPMPMMMMPM1 PPPPPM 
9}iq.tt PMPPPPMPMMMMt! MPPPPP 
9}iqAV MMPMPPPPMPMM5 PMPPPP 
9}iq.si MMMMPMPC HPMP4 PPMPPP 
9»iqM ■PBBHBPBPPPP3 PPPBPP 
9Jtq-» PPBPB1BBPBPP2 PPPPBP 
ajiq^ BpPP«PBB««P» PPPPPM 
9iii[aPBPPPP»PBBBMH mppppp 
ajiqw ■■PBPPPPBP«»> PBPPPP 
dUq.tt ■MMPBPPPn«P4 PPBPPP 
am* MPBBBBPBPPPP3 nnPMPP 

•>4iqAv ;.:::■: ■■■■.■ n i ■ 

9i»iq.«. PPPPMPBBMHPH1 PPPPPB 
9Hq-* PHPn: IPHPMBBB6 MPPPPP 

eiiqM b:.:mmbbpbpppp3 ppphpp 

9JRav BPBBBMPBPPPP3 PPPBPP 
94!ttM«PBBBHPBPPPP3 PPPBPP 
noBiq MPBH1MPBPPPP3 PPPMPP 
^QBM PBPPPPMPMMBM6 MPPPPP 
stOBiq PMPPPPMPMMMMt! MPPPPP 
VBiq PMPPPPMPMMMMt: MPPPPP 
3I3BiaMPMMMMPMPPPP3 PPPMPP 
sjiqAV MPMMMMPMPPPP3 PPPMPP 
^}iq.v\ MPMMMMPMPPPP3 PPPMPP 
ajiq.w MPMMMMPMPPPP3 PPPMPP 
9liqA\ PMPPPPMPMMMMti MPPPPP 
9*iq« MMPMPPPPM: 1MM5 PMPPPP 
9;l q.u MMMMPMPPPPMP4 PPMPPP 
gjiq.vv MPMMMMPMPPPP3 PPPMUP 
9 JiqA\PPMPMMMMPMPP2 PPPPMP 
gjirU PPPPMPMMMMPM1 PPPPPM 
9jiqA\ PMPPPPMPMMMMt - . MPPPPP 
9jiqAv MMPMPPPPMPMMo PMPPPP 
ejiqA\ MMMMPMPPPPMP4 PPMPPP 
ajiqAv MPMMMMPMPPPP3 PPPMPP 
9iiqAv PPMPMMMMPMPP2 PPPPMP 
9Hq.w PP 3PMPMMMMPM1 PPPPPM 
9}iqA\ PMPPPPMPMMMMt! MPPPPP 
91tq.v\ MMPMPPPPMPMMo PMPPPP 
•Hiuja MMMMPMPPPPMP4 PPMPP 
a;iqA\ MPMMMMPMPP3P3 PPPMPP 
auqAv PPMPMMMMPMPP2 PPPPMP 
94!q.\iPPPPMPMMMMPMl PPPPPM 
FRONT. I 

►, *i ^ ft -gMMPPPM 

5 .. M W gMMMPPP 

SS o 2 ^"PPPMM 

■3 SMMPPPM 

•C *-PPPMMM 

» C MPPPMM 

3 "SPPMMMP 

o flPPPMMM 

" ^SPMMMPC 

£ gPPMMMP 

B -MMM ■ 

S 5PMMMPP 

05 -9AB9AV 



=Q 



9PPPMPPPPPPPP 
8PPPPMPPPPPPP 
7PPPPPMPPPPPP 
BPPPPPPMPPPPP 
5PPPPPPPMPPPP 
4PPP HPPPPMPPP 
3PPPPPPPPPMPP 
2PPPPPPPPPPMP 
1PPPPPPPPPPPM 
12MPPPPPPPPPPP 
UPMPPPPPPPPPP 
10PPMPPPPPPPPP 
9PPPMPPPPPPPP 
8PPPPMPPPPPPP 
7PPPPPMPPPPPP 
6PPPPPPMPPPPP 
3PPPPPPPPPMPC 
3PPPPPPPPPMPP 
3PPPPPPPPPMPP 
3PPPPPPPPPMPP 
6PPPPPPMPPnPP 
6PPPPPPMPPPPP 
6PPPPPPMPPPPP 
3PPPPPPPPPMPP 
3PPPPPPPPPMPP 
3PPPPPPPPPMPP 
3PPPPPPPPPMPH 
6PPPPPPMPPPPP 
5PPPPPPPMPPPP 
4PPPPPPPPMPPP 
3PPPPPPPPPMPP 
2PPDPPPPP.npMP 
1PPPPPPPPPPPM 
12MPPPPPPPPPPP 

UPMPPPPPPPPPP 

10PPMPC 

9PPPMPPPPPPPP 
8PUPPMPPPPPPP 
7PPPPPMPPPPPP 
6PPPPPPMPPPPP 
5PC PPMPPPP 
4PPPPPPPPMPPP 
3PPPPPPPPPMPP 
2PH 3PPPPPPPMP 
1PPPPPPPPPPPM 



tjci — e 3-. x i-iLO-rwei- 

MMMPPPM 

PMMMPPC 
MMPPPMM 
^PMMMPPPM 
PMMMPPPMMM 
=M1 iPPMMMI !' [| !MM 
-cPPMMMPPPMMMP 
SPPPMMMPPPMMM 
SpMMMPPPMMMPr 
sPPMMM' "P 
- "-PPPMMM 



^p: 



3 PPPMPP 

I ' 3 5 PMPPPP, 

M. . 

2 PPPPMP 

3 PPPMPP. 

:: ■ ;. 

M. 
2 P PPPM P 

<; M : 

5 PMPC 

I M 

4 PPMPPP! 
_ 3 PPPMPP 

12MPPC : 4 PI 3PMPPP 5 PMPPPP. 

UPMPPPPPPPPPP 5PPPPMPHPP 6 MPPPPP ' 

KIPPMPPPPPPPPP 6 PPPMPPPPP 2 PPPPMP 
9PPPMPPPPPPPP 9 MPPPPPPPP 3 PPPMPP 
8PPPPMPPPPPPU 8PMPPPPPPP 4 PPMPPP 
7PPPPPMPPPPPP 7 PPMPPPPPP 1 PPPPPM 
6PPPPPPMPPPPP fi PPPMPPPPP 2 PPPPMP, 
5PPPPPPPMPPPP 5 PPPPMPi: 3 6 MPPPPP 
4PPPPPPPPMPPP 4 PPPPPMPPP 5 PMPC 
3PPPPPPPPPMPP 3 PPPPPPMPP 
2PPPPPPPPPPMP 2 PPPPPPPMP 
1PPPPPPPPPPPM 1 PPPPPPPPM 

12MPPPPPPPPPPP 4 PPPPPMPPP 

UPMPPPPPPPPH 3 5 PPPPMPPPP 

KIPPMPPPPPPPPP 6 PPPMPC 
9PPPMPPPPPPPP 1 PPPPPPPPM 
8PPPPMPPPPPPP 2 PPPPPPPMP 
7PPPPPMPPPPPP 3 PP3PPPMPP 



1 PPPPPI 

4 ppmppp ; 

3 PPPMPP 

5 PMPPPP 

6 MPPPPP r 

2 PPPPMP 

3 PPPMPP 

4 PPMPPP: 
1 PPPPPM 

6pn :: :m: :; 3 6 pi : mp: n 2 ppppmp 



5PPPPPPPMPPPP 5 PPPPMPPPP 

4PPPPPPPPMPPP 4 PPPPPMPPP 

3PPPPPPPPPMPP 9 MPPPP 

2PPPPPPPPPPMP 8 PMPPPPPPP 

1PPPPPPC 3PM 7 PPMPPPPPP 

fiPPPPPPMPPPP 3 6 PPPMPPPPP 

5PPPPPPPMPPC 3 5 PPPPMPPPP 



4PPPPPPPPMPPP 4 PPPPPMPPP 5 



3PPPPPPPPPMPP 
2PPPPPPPPPPMP 
1PPPPPPPPPPPM 
6PPPPPPMPPPPP 



PPPPP- 
5 PMPPPP 
1 PPPPPM 
4 PPMPPP 
3 PPPMPP 
2 PPPPMP 

fi MPPPPP ; 

PMPPPP 1 



3 PPPPPPMPP 1 PPPPP_ 

2 PPPPPPPMP 4 PPMPP 

in HPPPPPM 3 PPPMPP : 

. fi PPPMPPPPP 2 PPPPMP 

UPMPt: 3 5 PPPPMPPPP ti MPPPPP 

4PPPPPPPPMPPP 4 PPPPPMPPP 5 PMPC 

3PPPPPPPPPMPP 9 MPPPPPPPP 1 PPPPPM 

2PPPPPPPPPPMP 8 PMPPPPPPP 4 PPMPPP 

1PPPPPPPPPPPM 7 PPMPPPPPP 3 PPPMPP i 

6PPPPPPMPPPPP 6 PPPMPPPPP 2 PPPPMP 

3PPPPPPPPPMPP 3 PPPPPPMPP 1 PPPPPM' 

3PPPPPPPPPMPP 3 PPPPPPMPP 1 PPPPPM . 

3PPPPPPPPPMPP 3 PPPPPPMPP 1 PPPPPM [ 

3PPPPPPPPPMPP 3 PPPPPPMPP 1 PPPPPM 

6PPPPPPMPPPPP 6 PPPMPPPn 3 2 PPPPMP 

6PPPPPPMPPPPP 6 PPPMPPPPP 2 PPPPMP 

6PPPPPPMPPPPP 6 PPPMPPPPP 2 PPPPMP 

3PPC PPPPPPMPP 3 PPPPPPMPP 1 PPPPPM , 

3PPPPPPPPPMPP 3 PPPPPPMPP 1 PPPPPM ( 

3PPPPPPPPPMPP 3 PPPPPPMPP 1 PPPPPM 

3PPPPPPPPPMPP 3PPPP33MPP 1 PPPPPM 

6PPPPPPMPPPPP 6 PPPMPPPPP 2 PPPPMP 

5PPPC 3PPMPPPP 5 PPPPMPPPP 6 MPPPPC 

4PE ' ■ i ; 14 PPPPPMPPP 5 PMPPPP 

3PPPPPPPPPMPP 3 PPPPPPMPP 1 PPPPPM 

2PPPPPPPPPPMP 2 PPPPPPPMP 4 PPMPPP ( 

1PPPPPPPPPPPM 1 PPPPPPPPM 3 PPPMPC 

6PPPPPPMPPPPP 6 PPPMPPPPP 2 PI PZMP 

5PPPPPPPMPPPP 5 PPPPMPH 3 fi MPPPPP 

4PPPPPPPPMPC 1 4 PPC 3PMPPP 5 PMPC !P< 

3PPPPPPPPPMPP 9 MPn PPPPPP 1 PPPPPM 

2PPPPPPPPPPMP 8 PMPPPPPPP 4 PPMPC 

1PPPPPPPPPPPM 7 PPMPPPPPP 3 PPPMPP 

fiPL 3PPPMPH 3 6 PPPMPPPPP 2 PPPPMP 

5PPPPPPPMPH 3 5 PPPPMPPPP 6 MPPPPP 

4PPPPPPPPMPPP 4PPPPPMPP3 5 PMPPP 

3PPP HPPPPPMPP 3 PP 3PMPP 1 p: 
2PPPL 3PPPPPMP 2 PPPPPPPMP 
1PPPPPPPPPPPM 1 PPPPPPPPM 



it-i^S 3 "-* 

.SPMMMPPMMPPPM 

2MMMPPPMMMPPP 

-ePPMMMPMPPPMM 

2PMMMPPMMPPPM 

^PPPMMMPPP' 

CPPMMMPMPPP 



^>— Sn^xi--. 



iPPMMMPPPl 



§1 



PPP. 

9AB9AV 



-m: :: 
2ppp: 

^MMPC 

3 gMPPP 

PP *MMMP 

PP Smmpp 



SPPPMMMPPP 

■=: ■■■ : ' ■■ 

S-PPMMMPPPM 
^MMMPPPMMM 
C PMMMPPPMM 
"gMMPPPMMMP 

Jmmmpppmmm 

tMPPPMMMPP 
MPPMMMP SMMPPPMMMP 

■■■ :: •:: _. ' r ■■■ : : ' 

MPMMMPP TMPPPMMMPP 

9AB9AV "9AB9Ai 



■ ■■ 

3PPMMI 



4 PPMPPP 
3 PPPMPP 

;^-,„„- 

•9MPPMMP 
2MMPPMP 
-P IMMMP 

cm: : ■■ 

wPPMMPME 
°PPMMMP; 
gPMMPPM! 
r '■'■ '" ■: 
?■■ ' M [ 
JSPMM."! M 
aMMPPMP 
MMMPPPM 

9AB9M. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING, £9 

"pi clou f\ — See Plate I, On counting the threads in this 
pickout we find there are SO, or in other words, there are 
90 threads in the pattern crosswise of the warp, the way 
the filling runs; and 12 threads in the pickout crosswise of 
the filling, the way the warp runs. Therefore, to weave 
this pattern with a straight draft, that is, without reducing 
it. would require a loom operating 90 harnesses and 12 
bars of chain. Hence it will be seen, that to weave this 
pattern in -an ordinary fancy loom, it must be reduced and 
wove with a cross draft, which is accomplished in the 
following manner. 

Commence with the first warp thread nt the left-hand 
side of pickout — which is called the "front," and reads from 
the bottom upwards, 1 up, 1 down, 4 up, 1 down, 1 up. 4 
down — and mark it as No. 1, then proceed to the right, 
looking over each warp thread in rotation, and all threads 
found to read the same as No. 1, mark with the figure 1. 
There are found, in looking through the whole pickout, 17 
threads that read the same as No. 1, consequently each of 
them is marked with the figure 1. All of these 17 threads 
are to be drawn into the heddles on No. 1 harness, and 
as these threads read, so must that part of the chain draft 
read that operates No, 1 harness. 

Commence again at the left-hand side, the first thread 
we come to which is not numbered, mark as No. 2, then pro- 
ceed in the same manner as before, marking each thread 
that reads the same as No. 2, with the figure 2. There are 
found 13 threads, which are to be drawn into the heddles on 
No. 2 harness, and as these threads read, so must that part 
of the chain draft read that operates No. 2 harness. 

In the above manner continue the reducing, working 
to right, numbering the threads found to read differently, 
in their numeral order, until every thread in the pickout is 
numbered. The highest number obtained represents the 
least number of harnesses required to weave the pattern 
with a cross draft. In the present instance, it will be seen 
that the highest number is six; hence this pattern of 90 
threads straight draft can be reduced to and woven on six 



30 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

harnesses with a cross draft. Each thread, as numbered at 
the bottom of the pickout. is to be drawn into the heddles 
on a corresponding number of harness. Also, the weaving 
of one thread of each number, drawn off and set down in 
their numeral order, produces the chain draft or weave to 
be used with the cross draft. 

See first method of reducing, Plate I., which illustrates 
the above and the pickout reduced to its lowest term: also 
the dressing pattern, which is as follows: 

21 White, White. 
5 Black, 6 Olive, 

22 White, 6 White. 
1 Red and Blue D. & T.. 5 ( )live, 

5 Olive, 1 Red and Green D. & T. 
G White, 

6 Olive. 90 threads in one dressing- 
pattern. Filling. 1 pick of black, and 1 pick of drab, alter- 
nately — commonly called "pick and pick." 

If it is more convenient or easier to pick out the warp 
threads from the filling, then commence at the lower right- 
hand corner of sample, (see sample) turn it part way round 
until this corner is in the position of the present upper right- 
hand corner- then proceed with the dissecting as before 
described, except in reading and writing down the result, 
the work is just the reverse: Thus, for instance, when the 
filling threads are do tat or under the warp threads they 
should be read as up, and when' the filling threads are n/> 
or over the warp threads they should be read as down, and 
marked on the design paper reading upwards so as to read 
from the bottom to the top. Thus the first thread of the 
pattern before us, picked out in this manner, would read 
1 down, 1 up, 4 down, 1 up, 1 down. 4 up. — See pickout. 

The weaving of each thread should be marked down at 
the left of the first, which will produce the same result as 
though dissected the former way. 

In dissecting this sample the filling way, there have to 
be picked out 12 threads of filling that were interwoven 
with 90 threads of warp; in dissecting it the warp way. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 31 

there have to be picked out 90 threads of warp that were 
interwoven with 12 threads of filling'. 

The next thing in order, in this business, is 

TO FIND THE NUMBER OF THREADS IN THE WARP: 

First, ascertain the number of warp threads contained in 
one inch of the sample; in the present instance we find by 
actual count that there are (3(3. Now multiply this number 
by the number of inches the good are to measure when 
finished, which is as a general rule 27 inches, (three-fourths 
of a yard) for single width cassimeres inside the selvage. 

Thus, <i<3 X 27 = 1782 threads; but as 1782 is not divisible 
by 90, the number of threads in a pattern, and as it should 
be, we will add 18 threads, making in all 1800 in the warp. 
This number divided by the number of threads in one pat- 
tern will give the whole number of patterns in warp, as 
follows: 1800-^90 = 20 patterns of 90 threads each, thus 

(51 White, 

5 Black, 
22 Olive, 

1 Red and Blue D. & T.. 

1 Red and Green D. & T. 

90 threads in pattern; 20 patterns in warp would require 
just twenty times that amount of each kind of yarn in a 
warp, thus: — 

61 X 20 = 1220 threads of white. 
5 X 20 = 100 threads of black. 
22 X 20 = 440 threads of olive. 
1 x 20 = 20 threads of red and blue D. & T. 
1 x 20 = 20 threads of red and green D. & T. 



90 1800 threads in warp. 

In estimating the number of ends in a warp on a basis of 
27 inches, it is better to add to, than to take from the result, 
as marketable goods are more apt to be 27i or 28 inches in- 
side of selvage than under 27 inches, hence the reason of 
adding 18 threads in the above instance. 

Some designers use 2S inches as a basis of figuring in 



%% THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

order to make sure of enough threads; in which case a few 
threads may be taken from the result if found necessary to 
even up on the number of ends, or to> secure whole patterns. 

A warp should always contain a whole number of pat- 
terns, (though the number of patterns may be odd or even) 
that is, there should be no threads left over a whole pattern. 

In dressing warps, if the warp is all one kind of yarn, it 
will make no material difference in the result as shown 
above, except,, adding to, or taking a few threads from the 
result, will often make the spooling and dressing much 
handier, thus saving the dresser both time and trouble. 

The next thing with which we have to deal is the 
laying out — 

TO FIND THE AMOUNT OF YARN REQUIRED FOR WARP. 

For this purpose we will suppose that we are required to 
lay out and make of finished goods 2000 yards like sample. 
Roughly estimating, we will add for the takeup in weaving 
and shrinkage in finishing 10 per cent. This will make a 
total of 2200 yards of warp to figure on, which if divided 
into 6 warps, will give 350 yards per warp of 10 cuts, — 
that is 35 yards per cut or piece. 

The warp yarns, in this sample, were spun as follows: 



White 


3f 


runs. 


Black 


3| 


runs. 


Olive 


3f 


runs. 


Red 


7 


runs. 


Blue 


7 


runs. 


Red 


7 


runs. 


Green 


7 


runs. 



Weighed in the D. & T., 3| runs. 

(• Weighed in the D. & T. , 3£ runs. 

The question now before us is, how many pounds of 
each kind of yarn are required in 2200 yards of warp ? This 
is figured out (and answered) as follows: 

Multiply the number of threads of each kind, by 
the number of yards of warp we are required to make; 
the product will be the total length in yards of that partic- 
ular thread or kind of yarn; this number divided by the 
number of yards the yarn is spun to the pound, will give 
the number of pounds of yarn required of that one kind. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 33 

In this manner figure out for each different kind and size 
of yarn used in the warp. — Thus, 

Threads of each Yds. of warp Yds. of each Yds. spun Lbs. of 
kind in warp. required. kind. per lb. each. 

White 1220 X 2200 = 2,684,000 -^ 6000 = 448 

Black 100X2200= 220,000 -f- 5800 = 38 

Olive 440X2200= 968,000 -^- 6000 = 161 

D. & T. 20 X 2200 = « 44,000 H- 5000 = 9 (44 each. r. & b. ) 

D. & T. 20 X 2200 = 44,000 -f- 5000= 9 (44 each. r. & g. ) 

Total, 665 lbs., the com- 
bined weight of yarn required to make 5 warps of 440 yards; 
being 12 cuts of 36| yards each, or in all, 2200 yards. 

If the warp had all been of one kind of yarn, and spun 
3f runs throughout, the figuring then would have been as 
follows: 1800 X 2200 = 3,960,000 -^ 6000 = 660 lbs.: being 
5 lbs. less than the farmer figuring. This is owing to the 
black yarn weighing £-run" and the double and twist f-run 
heavier than the other yarn. Besides too, in the former 
figuring, we reckoned all fractions of pounds as whole 
numbers. This gave us whole pounds as follows: 448 white 
yarn, 38 black, 161 olive, 9 red and blue D. & T., 9 red and 
green D. & T. Of course, as red was used with both the 
blue and green threads, there would necessarily be the same 
amount of red yarn as in both 1 those colors taken together; 
making separately of the D. & T. yarns, 9 lbs. of red, and 
44 lbs. each of blue and green. 

In figuring for the amount of clean wool required to 
produce each kind of yarn, add a percentage sufficient to 
cover the loss in carding, spinning, spooling, and dressing; 
this will vary between 15 and 35$, according to quality of 
stock, general facilities, and supervision of the work in the 
several departments. The next thing in order is, 

TO FIND THE REQUIRED REED. 

Divide the total number of ends in warp, by the number 
of inches wanted in the reed inside of selvage; this quo- 
tient divided by the number of threads wanted in a dent, 
will give the number of reed required. 

Example. — The warp contains 1800 ends, and we desire 

5 



34 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

to lay it 36 inches in the reed, inside of selvage, 4 threads 
per dent. What is the number of reed required? 

Threads Inches Threads Threads No. of 
in warp, in reed, per inch, per dent. reed. 

1800 -r- 36 = 50 -=r 4 =124. Or 5 tin ■'* per dent, thus 

1 8< II ) -r- 36 = 50 -:- 5 = 10 reed. 

In patterns of combined weaves, it is sometimes found 
necessary to reed each weave or figure differently in order 
to produce the desired effect in the finished fabric ; that is, 
each dent will not contain the same number of threads 
throughout the reeding, as in the ordinary way. In cases 
of this kind, we find the average number of threads in each 
dent, then proceed as before. 

Example. — Suppose we have a warp to reed, 2 threads 
in the 1st dent, 3 in the 2d, 4 in the 3d, 5 in the 4th, and 6 in 
the 5th; what will be the average number of threads in 
each dent? 

Add together the number of threads in the set, and 
divide by the number of dents in that set. Thus, 

2+3+4+5+6=20 threads, in a set of 5 dents; 20H-5=4 
threads, average per dent. 

Again, suppose we wish to draw 6 threads in each of 
six dents, and 3 threads in each of three dents: 

< ; — | — «l — | — f » — | — «J — | — «; — | — 6+3+3+3=45 threads in a set of 9 dents; 
45-=-9=5 threads. < %ve rage per dent. In this manner the 
average number of threads per dent, in any style of reeding. 
may be easily found. The next thing, to which we will call 
the reader's attention, is how 

TO FIND THE AMOUNT OF YARN REQUIRED 
FOR THE FILLING. 

Multiply the number of picks per inch, in loom, by the 
number of inches the warp is laid in the reed, including sel- 
vage; the result obtained will be the number of yards of fill- 
ing in ona yard of flannel; multiply this product by the num- 
ber of yards of warp to be filled, divide the result obtained 
by the number of yards the filling is spun per pound, and 
the quotient will be the total weight of filling required. 

To illustrate, suppose we find by actual count that there 
are 65 picks per inch in the sample; the filling of which was 



TEXTILE DESIGNING, 35 

spun 4 runs, or 0400 yards to the pound. Now, as there is 
the "take-up" in weaving, as well as the contraction of the 
cloth in finishing, for which we must make allowance, it will 
not do to figure on 65 picks in loom; hence, we will calculate 
on a shrinkage of 1 pick in 13, which will give us 60 picks 
per inch in loom, for 65 picks per inch when finished. As 
previously decided, the warp is laid 36 inches in the reed, 
inside of selvage; to this we will add 1 inch for selvage, 
making in all, 37 inches the total width in loom. This 
multiplied by 60 picks per inch, will give the following: 

37 X 60 = 2220, yards of filling in one yard of flannel. 
This product multiplied by 2200, the yards of warp to be 
filled, will give the following: 

2220 X 2200 = 4,884,000 total number of yards of filling- 
required to fill 2200 yards of warp. This product divided 
by 6400 yards, length the filling is spun per pound, will 
give the following: 

4,884,000 -^ 6400 = 763^ lbs., call it 764, of filling yarn 
required to fill 2200 yards of warp; one-half (382 lbs.) of 
which is black yarn, and the other half (382 lbs. ) drab. 

To get at the amount of clean wool required to make 
each kind of filling, add a percentage sufficient to cover loss 
in carding, spinning and weaving; this will vary in the 
same manner as when figuring the wool for warp. 

This figuring on the loss or shrinkage between the clean 
wool, as taken to the picking room, and the finished goods 
or even goods in the flannel, can be gotten down to a fine 
thing only by close observation on the part of the designer 
or superintendent; even then it requires much skill, as well 
as practical experience. 

Having figured for the warp and filling yarns in the 
above calculations, the next thing in order is, 

TO FIND THE NUMBER OF SECTIONS AND NUMBER OF 
SPOOLS REQUIRED UP. 

Divide the number of* threads in warp, into sections 
containing a whole number of patterns in each; that is. each 
section should contain whole patterns, though these may 
be either even, or odd in number; but no pattern should be 



36 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR. 

divided, by running part of it in one section and part in 
another section, except in extreme cases. 

In the present instance we have calculated on 1800 ends 
in warp, which consists of 20 patterns of 90 threads each. 
What is the required number of sections? Both 1800, and 
20 are divisible by 2, 4, 5, 10 and 20 without a remainder, 
hence one of these latter numbers must be taken as the 
number of sections to make. Now as 2, 10 and 20, are in 
the extreme, it rests with the number 4, or 5, and we will 
proceed to find out which of the two is preferable. Thus, 

Thr's in No. of Thr's in Thr's on No. of 
warp. sect's, section. spool. spools. 

1800 -i- 4 = 450 H- 40 = 114, up. in dresser frame; or. 

1800 -r- 5 = 360 -f- 40 = 9 spools up. In this figuring 
we have based our calculations on 40 threads to a spool, as 
that is the number most commonly used. 

In the former figuring it would require 4 sections of 450 
ends each, or Hi spools up; in the latter figuring it would 
require 5 sections of 360 ends each, or ( .) spools up. This 
latter result being the more preferable of the two, we will 
therefore base our figuring on 5 sections in the warp. Now 
the next thing necessary, is 

TO FIND THE NUMBER OF YARDS REQUIRED ON EACH SPOOL. 

Multiply the number of yards calculated for a warp by 
the number of sections; the result obtained will be the 
number of yards required on each spool to run the length 
of that warp. Thus, 

Yd's in warp. Sections. Yd's on spool. 

44(i X 5 = 2200; add a little for loss in tying up. etc. 

The above calculations are for straight work all of one 
color; but in figuring and making up the spools for a warp 
of different colors, — like the sample just dissected — proceed 
as follows: Divide the number of threads of each color, by 
the number of sections, which will give us the number of 
threads there are of each color in a section; this quotient 
divided by 40, (the number of threads on a spool) will give 
us the number of spools, or parts of spools, required of each 
color. Thus: — 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 



37 



Threads of Sec- Thr'sofeach Thr's on Spools of 

each kind in warp, tions. kind in section. spool, each kind. 



"White 1220 -r 5 = 


244 - 


- 40 = 


6, 


4 thr's over. 


Black 100 -h 5 = 


20 - 


- 40 = 


o. 


21 » threads. 


Olive 440^- 5 = 


88 


- 40 = 


2, 


8 thr's over. 


R&B. D. &T. 20 — 5 = 


4 - 


- 40 = 


0, 


4 threads. 


B.&G.D.&T. 20 -T- 5 = 


4 - 


- 40 = 


0, 


4 threads. 



Totals, isoo 360 8 40 threads; 

or 1 spool made up as follows : 4 white, 20 black, 8 olive, 4 
red and blue D. & T.. 4 red and green D. & T. This spool 
added to the 6 spools of white, and 2 of olive, will give us 
9 spools in all. Now we are ready for 

THE DRESSING OR WARPING. 

This is a process by which the warp yarns are arranged 
on the dresser frame into patterns and section?, before be- 
ing wound off to the warp or loom beam. In the dressing, 
great care should be taken to have the patterns properly 
arranged, as well as to have each section reeled alike, as 
regards the tention on the dresser reel. Also avoid letting 
the threads run loosely, and see that the lease is correctly 
taken up. Make sure of this before putting in the lease 
rods. Next in order is, 

TO FIND THE NUMBER OF HEDDLES REQUIRED ON EACH 
HARNESS WHEN USING A CROSS DRAFT. 

Take each harness in its numeral order, and count the 
number of threads drawn on it in one pattern, or a complete 
drawing-in draft; this number multiplied by the number of 
patterns or drafts in the warp, will give the required hed- 
dles for that particular harness. In this manner proceed 
with each harness. See 1st method of reducing — Plate I. 

By this method, we find that it requires six harnesses 
to weave the pattern, and that there are 13 threads drawn 
on each of the 1st and 2d harnesses, 21 on the 3d, 13 on each 
of the 4th and 5th, and 17 on the 6th, as demonstrated by 
the following table. It will be seen that in making out 
this table, we commence with the back or 6th harness, and 
work to the front or 1st harness. The object of this is, to 



38 



THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR. 



keep the harness numbers before us in the same position as 
the harnesses occupy when hung up for the drawer-in. 

Thrs. Pats. 

Harness No. 6 has 17 X 20 = 340 heddles. 

X 20 = 260 



13 

13 X 20 = 

21 X 20 = 

13 X 20 = 

13 X 20 = 



260 
420 
260 
260 



Threads in pattern 00 X 20 = 1800 heddles. 

See 2d method of reducing — Plate I. By this method 
we use twelve harnesses, and find that the number of hed- 
dles required on each is as follows: 

Thrs. Pats. 



Harness No. 12 has 6 > 


20 = 


120 heddles 


a < 


' 11 ' 


' 6 X 


20 = 


1 21 1 


a 


a 


' 10 k 


• 6 X 


20 = 


120 


a 


a t 


9 ' 


( 6 X 


20 = 


1 21 ) 




i . 


• 8 • 


• 6 X 


20 = 


120 


a 


a 


' 7 ' 


' 6 X 


20 = 


120 


a 




' 6 ' 


' 11 X 


20 = 


220 


a 


.. 


' 5 ' 


' 7 X 


20 = 


140 


a 


.. 


' 4 ' 


' 7 X 


20 = 


140 


a 


. . 


' 3 ' 


' 15 X 


20 = 


300 


.. 


a 


• 2 ' 


' 7 X 


20 = 


140 


a 


a 


" 1 ' 


' 7 X 


20 = 


140 


a 



Threads in pattern 90 X 20 =1800 heddles. 

See 3d method of reducing — Plate I. In this, we also 
use twelve harnesses, and find that the number of heddles 
required on each, is as follows: 

Thrs. Pats. 



Harness No. 


12 


has 


4 X 20 = 


80 heddles 


i 




i 


11 




4 X 20 = 


80 


. . » 


' 




( 


10 




4 X 20 = 


80 


a 






i 


9 




1X20 = 


80 


i . 


. 




t 


8 




4 X 20 = 


80 


a 


• 




i 


7 




4X20 = 


80 


a 


. 




i 


6 




13 x 20 = 


260 


a 


• 




' i 


5 




9 X -20 = 


180 




. 




i 


4 




9 X 20 = 


180 


a 



(Continued on next page.) 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 



39 



Harness No. 



3 has 17 X 20 = 340 heddles. 

2 " 9 X 20 = 180 " 
1 « 9 x 20 = 180 



Threads in pattern 90 X 20 =1800 heddles. 

See 4th method of reducing— Plate I. By this method 
we use nine harnesses, and find that the number of heddles 
required on each is as follows: 











Thrs. Pats. 




Harness 


No. 


9 


has 


6 x 20 = 120 heddles 


a 


" 


8 


it 


6 X 20 = 120 


it 


. . 




7 


a 


6 X 20 = 120 


a 


.. 




6 


a 


17 X 20 = 340 


a 


n 




5 


a 


13 X 20 = 260 


a 


a 




1 


a 


13 x 20 = 200 


a 


. . 




3 


it 


15 x 20 = 300 


t ( 


a 




2 


t i 


7 x 20 = 140 • 


a 


i . 




1 


i i 


7 X 20 = 140 


it 



Threads in pattern 90 X 20 =1800 heddles. 

See 5th method of reducing — Plate I. This carries us 
back to six harnesses, with the same number of heddles on 
each as used in the first method, but it places the 3d, and 6th 
harness in the position of the 1st and 2d, as follows: 

Thrs. Pats. 



Harness No. 6 has 13 x 20 = 


260 heddles 


" 5 " 13 X 20 = 


260 


" 4 " 13 X 20 = 


260 


" 3 " 13 X 20 = 


260 


" 2 " 17 X 20 = 


340 


" 1 " 21 X 20 = 


420 



Threads in pattern 90 X 20 =1800 heddles. 

To make out a regular heddle list to go by in stringing 
up a set of harnesses, cross out the two middle columns of 
figures and use only the harness and heddle columns. An 
allowance of a few extra heddles ought to be made for 
broken ones, mistakes, etc. 

Of the above five methods of reducing and drawing-in. 
it may be well to state, that they are all practicable, and 
will produce the same result in weaving. The first is the 
original one and generally adopted, but we will endeavor to 



10 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR. 

show, that it is not always policy to use it. In the present 
instance, it will be seen that, the third harness has to oper- 
ate 420 threads, the sixth 340, while the remaining four have 
each 260. This would not be an improper division with fine 
and well-sized yarn; but with the yarn coarsely spun from 
long coarse wool, it would be quite difficult to produce a 
clear, open shed with this number of harnesses, owing to 
the third and sixth having so much to carry: this would 
cause the warp to cling and chafe, thus making bad work. 
But, by using the second method this difficulty would be 
overcome, as will be seen by the division of the warp on six 
more harnesses. This change does not necessarily make it 
any harder for the weaver, but easier on the yarn and loom. 

If it be required to modify the work as much as pos- 
sible for the weaver's benefit, the third method would be 
the one to adopt; for in this the drawing-in draft is, what 
might be called, a straight draw, except where the basket 
figure comes in, thus making it much easier for the weaver 
to keep the threads in right, especially when mending 
large break-outs. Although, in this case, the warp is not 
as equally divided as in that of the second method, yet. of 
the two, all things considered, it is more preferable. 

The fourth method is somewhat more complicated for 
the weaver, but in case of an old and badly worn loom that 
would operate all right nine harnesses, but not twelve; or in 
case of being short of harnesses, we would prefer it to the 
first method. 

The fifth method is the most complicated of the five, for 
both the drawer-in and weaver; and, on the other hand, is 
the easiest for the loom, as it will be seen that the harnesses 
carrying the most warp are brought to the front of. loom. 
With a good, fancy weaver, we would prefer this method 
to all the others; and if desired, it could be easily carried 
to twelve harnesses on the same principle. 

We might illustrate several other plans for weaving 
this design about which we have said so much; but believe 
the above are sufficient for the beginner to comprehend our 
meaning. However, it should be borne in mind, when lav- 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 41 

ing out for cross drafts, that the harnesses carrying an 
extra amount of warp should be placed in front, and even 
then, it is often advisable to double up on those particular 
harnesses if on no others. 

Production and quality are the two great points to aim 
at in running a weave room. These results are more easily 
accomplished if the work is laid out to the best advantage 
for both the weaver and loom. Therefore, if the designer, 
or overseer of weaving, finds that he can simplify a cross 
draft by adding on harnesses, he ought to do so providing 
it will not interfere too much with the working of loom, 
which is often aided by such changes as much and some- 
times more than the weaver. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

ESTIMATING THE PER CENT. TO ALLOW FOR LOSS OF STOCK 
DURING THE PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE. 

This is a branch of designing which brings into display 
the designer's arithmetical qualifications, as well as his 
judgment. In speaking of judgment, in this connection, 
we wish it to be borne in mind, that judgment is the only 
basis on which to figure, and this basis must be estimated 
from personal observations. There is a wide variation in the 
different grades of stock, in working with different mach- 
inery, in different mills, and under different circumstances; 
so that arbitrary rules in relation to these calculations are 
of little or no use. Hence, the convenience of minute 
records, in estimating stock, must be apparent. 

To continue the work before us, we will take each kind 
of warp yarn figured on in the preceding chapter, and esti- 
mate the amount of wool required to be taken to the picking 
room for each. To the white yarn, we will add 20$ for the 

6 



4<! THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

loss on wool, in reaching its spun state; and to each of the 
colored yarns, we will add 25$ for loss before reaching the 
spun state. Now the question arises, what amount of clean 
dry wool of each color do we require of each to produce the 
given number of pounds of yarn? 

RULE FOR ADDING PERCENTAGE. 

Divide the known number of pounds, by L00# less the 
per cent, to be added. This is done by annexing two ciphers 
to the dividend, and dividing as though the divisor were a 
whole number. The quotient will be the total number of 
pounds required. Thus, 

White yarn 448 lbs., to which we wish to add 20$. 
Black yarn 38 lbs. 1 
Olive yarn 1(51 lbs. 

Red yarn 9 lbs. Vto which we wish to add 25$. 
Blue yarn 44 lbs. 
Green yarn 44 lbs. 

Example. — 100? less 20# = 80# for a divisor; take 44s. 
the pounds known, with two ciphers annexed, as a dividend: 
80)448.00(560 lbs. of white wool required. 
44S 00 

Again, 100^ less 25$ = 75? 
as a divisor, in figuring the wool for the remaining yarns: 
75)38.00(50^ lbs. black wool. 

37 5(1 75)161.00(214| lbs. olive wool. 

160 50 

50 



50 



75)9.00(12 lbs. red wool. 

9 00 75)4.50(6 lbs. blue wool, and 
4 50 6 lbs. green wool. 



This will give us wool lots, as follows: 
White wool 560 lbs. 

Black wool 50§ lbs. (will call it 51 lbs.) 
Olive wool 214| lbs. (will call it 215 lbs.) 
Red wool 12 lbs. 
Blue wool 6 lbs. 
Green wool (i lbs. 



849^ lbs. or say 850, of warp wools required 
to make 2200 yards of warp, as previously laid out. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING, 43 

For the filling yarns, we have previously figured on 382 
lbs. of black, and 382 lbs. of drab; to each of which we will 
add 25$ for the loss on wool, to its spun state. What 
amount of wool do we require for each kind of yarn? 

Example.— 75)382,00(509^ lbs. black wool, and 509^ lbs. 
375 

drab wool, or say 510 of each: 
700 
675 making in all, 1020 lbs. of fill- 

25 ing wool required to fill 2200 

yards of warp. This will give us, as follows: 

Lbs. warp wool. Lbs. tilling wool. 

850 -f- 1020 = 1870 lbs. of clean wool, in all, to pro- 
duce 2000 yards of finished goods; weight, 9 T % oz. per yard. 

To find the number of ounces of clean wool per yard, 
multiply 1870 by 10 (ounces per pound), and divide the pro- 
duct by 2000; the quotient will be the ounces per yard. 

1870 X L6 — 29,920 -f- 2000 = 14 f ! W oz. of clean wool 
required to produce one yard of the finished goods, reckon- 
ing on an average, a loss of 23, V^ in the wool for picking, 
carding and spinning; and 10$ loss in the yarn for spooling, 
dressing, weaving and finishing: In all, 33 T 5 ^ per cent. 

The goods, for which we have been figuring,— sample 
No. 1, — weighed when finished, just U-fa oz. per yard; 
being fVo oz. less than estimated in the above calculations, 
which would have made the goods finish !),y o oz. per yard. 
Therefore, considering that in all the preceding figuring for 
both the yarn and wool, we reckoned each fraction as a 
whole pound, and that our figuring has been done on the 
basis of judgment, and not from records obtained in mak- 
ing the fabric; it will be conceded that these estimates have 
come out very close, under the circumstances. Then too, 
if these estimates had been put into actual work, we might 
have had a little of the warp or filling, or both, left over. 
Again, the yarn might have been spun on the light side of 
what was calculated. Any one of these causes, say nothing 
of taking them all together, would have caused this small 
fraction of difference. 



44 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

Above we spoke of the average loss being 23^$; it 
may be well for us, before proceeding any further, to dem- 
onstrate how it was obtained. 

To 665 lbs. of warp yarn were added 185 lbs. to find the 
number of pounds of wool; and in the same way, to the 764 
lbs. of filling yarn were added 256 lbs. to find the number 
of pounds of wool. Now find the sum of the amounts 
added: 1854-256=441; annex two ciphers and divide by the 
sum of the whole number of pounds of wool required for 
both warp and filling. 850-{-1020=l 871 >. 

1870)441.00(23^5 lbs., the average weight added to each 
374 (i 

Tn^-.V lbs. of yarn, which equals 
6? 00 
56 10 100 lbs. of wool to produce the same. 



10 90 remainder, this is equal to the above fraction 
and a little over, but not sufficient to take into account. 
This method of finding the average per cent, holds good in 
figuring on any number of different percentages. 

Before closing this chapter, we wish to remind the 
reader that this percentage of loss must not be considered as 
so much stock lost to the manufacturer, for only a part of it, 
or such as consists of foreign matters in the Wool, can be so 
taken. The waste made in every department, from the 
wool room to the goods in the case, can be again worked 
over into other goods; if not in the mill where made, then 
in some other mill that will pay cash for it. 

Weight added to stock by oiling, we do not take into 
consideration. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 45 



CHAPTER IX. 

ESTIMATING THE PER CENT. OF COLORS IN MIXES, 
AND OF DIFFERENT WOOLS IN BATCHES. 

In order to demonstrate this subject in a practical man- 
ner, we will suppose that we are required to get up a batch 
of 960 lbs. of wool, to be composed of 70$ black. 20$ white, 
and 10$ orange. What is the amount of each color required 
to produce the batch of 960 pounds? 

TO FIND THE AMOUNT OF EACH COLOR REQUIRED IN A BATCH. 
THE SIZE OF BATCH AND PER CENT. BEING KNOWN. 

Multiply the whole number of pounds in batch, by the 
per cent, of each color, and point off two figures at the 
right; the product will be the amount required of that par- 
ticular color. Thus, 

960 960 960 

.70 black. .20 white. .10 orange. 



672.00 102.00 96.00 

This will give us wool as follows: 
Black 672 lbs. 
White 102 lbs. 
Orange 96 lbs. 

Total, 960 lbs. 

Again, suppose we went into the wool room and made 
up a batch, as follows: 

Oregon 230 lbs. ) ,-, 
S. pulled 20 lbs. [ whlte - 
Oregon 70 lbs. ) 
• Pa, fleece 65 lbs. >■ olive. 
Ohio " 65 lbs. ) 
Va. " 50 lbs. plum. 

Total. 500 lbs. in the lot. What is the per cent, of 
each color? Also, what is the per cent, of each kind of 
wool? Proceed in the following manner: 



46 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

Annex two ciphers to the whole number of pounds of 
each color, or kind of wool, and divide by the whole sura. 

230 -f- 20 = 250 lbs. white; annex two ciphers: 250. no. 

250.00 -f- 500 = 50$ white. 

70 + 65 -+- G5 = 200 lbs. olive; annex two ciphers: 200.00. 

200.00 -j- 500 = 40$ olive. 

50 lbs. plum; annex two ciphers: 50.00 -f- 500 = lOj? plum. 
This gives us the per cent, of each color. Now we will 
find the per cent, of each kind of wool. 

230 -+- 70 = 300 lbs. Oregon; annex two ciphers: 300.00. 

300.00 -T- 500 == 60$ Oregon wool. 

20 lbs. S. pulled; annex two ciphers: 20.00 -J- 500 = 4$ 
super pulled wool. 

05 lbs. Pa. fleece; annex two ciphers: 05. oo -r- 500 = 13$ 
Pennsylvania fleece wool. 

65 lbs. O. fleece; annex two ciphers: 65.00 -j- 500 = 13$ 
( )hio fleece wool. 

50 lbs. Va. fleece; annex two ciphers: 50.110 -~- 500 = 10$ 
Virginia fleece wool. 

By the above figures, it will be seen that this rule works 
the same, whether figuring the per cent, of colors, or the 
qualities of stock. 

Again, suppose we have 770 lbs. of fleece wool, to which 
we wish to add 30$ of shoddy. What will be the amount of 
shoddy required? 

Figure this as demonstrated in the preceding chapter. 
100 _ 30 = 70 for the divisor. 

70)770.00(1100 lbs., total weight: from which subtract 
77000 1100 
the pounds known 770 



330 lbs., amount of 
shoddy required. 

On the other hand, if we had 330 lbs. of shoddy to which 
we wish to add 70$ of fleece wool, it would require 770 lbs. 
of wool, making a total of 1100 lbs., shoddy and wool. 

We believe the illustrations given under this head, are 
sufficient for the reader to comprehend our meaning, and 
will therefore bring the chapter to a close. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 4? 



CHAPTER X. 

FIGURING THE SHRINKAGE OF WOOLS, AND THEIR 
COST WHEN SCOURED. 

For the purpose of demonstrating the work under this 
head, we will suppose that we have a lot of unscoured fleece 
wool, the shrinkage of which is not known, but must be 
obtained in order to know the cost when clean. 

TO FIND THE SHRINKAGE OF UNSCOURED WOOL. 

From the pounds taken in the grease, subtract the 
pounds of clean wool got back after scouring and drying, 
and divide the remaining pounds, with two ciphers annexed, 
by the pounds taken for a trial; the quotient will be the 
rate per cent, of shrinkage. 

Example. — Had scoured, 500 lbs. in the grease. 
Got back, 300 lbs. of clean wool. 



Lost, 200 lbs. in scouring, to which 
annex two ciphers, and divide by 500 lbs. 
500)200.00(40$, rate of shrinkage, or 40 lbs. lost for each 

200 00 

100 lbs. 100—40=60 lbs. of clean wool from 

each 100 lbs. in the grease. 

This wool, we will suppose, cost 35 cents per pound, in 
the grease. What is its cost in the scoured state? 

TO FIND THE COST OF SCOURED WOOL, THE MARKET 
PRICE AND SHRINKAGE BEING KNOWN. 

Divide the market price, with two ciphers annexed, by 
the pounds of clean wool obtained from 100 lbs. in the 
grease; the quotient will be the cost per pound of clean wool. 



48 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR. 

Example. — Market price, 35 cents per pound: wool 
shrunk 40$ in scouring, leaving (50 lbs. of clean wool from 
loo lbs. in the grease: 

60)35.00 market price. 



58-J cents per pound, cost of the clean wool. 

The reader should bear in mind, that the above figuring 
does not include the cost of freight, cartage, sorting, and 
scouring; all of which adds to the actual cost of scoured 
wools, the extent depending on circumstances. 

Again, suppose we wish to add to the 300 lbs. of clean 
fleece — which we obtained from 500 lbs. in the grease, being 
40$ shrinkage, — the same amount of clean second-grade 
fleece, which we had previously found, shrunk 45 per cent. 
How many pounds of the second-grade fleece, will it be 
necessary to scoure for the 300 lbs. of clean wool? 

TO FIND THE AMOUNT OF WOOL REQUIRED IN THE GREASE 

TO PRODUCE A GIVEN AMOUNT CLEAN. THE 

SHRINKAGE BEING KNOWN. 

Divide the pounds of clean wool wanted, with two 
ciphers annexed, by the pounds of clean wool obtained from 
loo lbs. in the grease to scoure: the quotient will be the 
pounds required in the grease. 

Example. — The second-grade fleece shrinks 45 r ;. which 
gives us 55 lbs. of clean wool for each 100 lbs. in the grease, 
and 3oo lbs. of clean wool are wanted: 

55)300.00 pounds wanted. 



545^ lbs. required in the grease, at 45 r ; shrinkage, 
to produce 300 lbs. clean wool. The reverse of this rule 
will also hold true. 

We believe this, with the two preceding chapters, is 
sufficient for the beginner to understand how to figure per- 
centage from any standpoint; and we trust that they will 
show him the necessity of thoroughly understanding this 
branch of the business. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. t9 



CHAPTER XI. 

DRESSING PATTERN WARPS AND WEAVING PATTERN SHEETS. 

Nearly every woolen mill, and nearly every designer 
have their own particular method of performing this piece 
of work for the loom, any one of which may prove satsi- 
factory to the designer under the circumstances surround- 
ing him; hence we shall not attempt to lay down any new 
methods, but simply give a few suggestions applicable un- 
der certain conditions. 

We always make it a point to dress a pattern warp on 
the dresser frame, if convenient to do so: this spreads the 
threads much evener, when reeling off to the warp beam ; 
gives an evener tension, and does away with watching the 
lease and patterns so closely, when once rightly started: 
besides, the work is then in a position for any length of 
warp required. If only five or six pattern stripes are want- 
ed, make each one a section in itself; but if several other 
stripes are wanted, two of these pattern stripes may be run 
in as one section. 

Between each pattern stripe, run in two threads of a 
fancy or different color, not too bold, or too faint, but such 
as will make sufficient contrast and look well with the col- 
ors with which they are to come in contact. Hence, it will 
be seen, that it is not always policy to use the same color for 
the dividing lines, as other colors in the same warp may be 
often brought into use, for this purpose, with a decided and 
pleasing effect. 

Again, when only a few small changes are desired from 
that of a regular warp, a good pattern sheet may be gotten 
up by breaking out a few threads and tying other colors in 
their place on the first end of warp, when being started in 

7 



50 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

the loom, or on the latter end when running out. A yard 
or more can be finished on the end of a regular cut. and 
thus save the expense of getting out a special pattern warp. 
Of course, to produce a pattern sheet in this manner, the 
number of harnesses in the loom, and style of drawing-in 
must correspond with the designer's ideas; but a change in 
the weave may be made if necessary. 

Then again, when but a few changes are desired from 
any one particular style, either in certain warp threads, or 
in the filling, it is good policy to weave sufficient of each 
change to make a pants' pattern. We have woven whole 
cuts in this manner, when only slight changes were wanted. 
These styles are cut apart after finishing, and will gener- 
ally sell without causing any material loss to the manufact- 
urer. When making patterns in this way. no change should 
be made in the weave; and the filling should be of the same 
size of yarn and kind of stock, to insure the same finish on 
each style, and not cause too much unevenness in the piece. 
These suggestions or methods, are calculated for use more 
especially in mills not having a pattern loom, or ample 
facilities for getting out regular pattern sheets. 

Large mills usually have ample facilities in the pattern 
department, which is fitted up to their own liking: and each 
designer, in his turn, has to follow the same course as his 
predecessor, so that to make any suggestions, relative to 
them, would be of no material use. Suffice it to say, that 
they all, generally speaking, have to dress their pattern 
warps on the peg or "pin" system. With this system, some 
use one style of frame for holding the bobbins of yarn, and 
some another; each one of which is thought to be good 
enough for its particular place. Therefore, comments, or 
suggestions on them, would be out of place here. We will, 
however, continue the subject by calling the reader's atten- 
tion to our method of weaving a pattern sheet. 

We have before us. a pattern sheet which we will en- 
deavor to illustrate in such a manner that our idea on this 
subject will be fully understood. This sheet was woven 
with the regular eight-harness twill, and consists of a series 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 



51 



of patterns made in mixes, solid colors, stripes, and plaids. 
To begin with, it has five sections, or in other words, five 
pattern stripes as follows: 



1st 
sect. 



2d 

sect. 



3d 

sect. 



4th 

sect. 



5th 
sect. 



The finished width of each section is 5£ inches; making 
in all, 27? inches inside of the selvage. Each section con- 
tains 240 threads of 2-run yarn; this gives us, in five sec- 
tions, 1200 threads independent of the dividing threads, or 
selvage. 

The yarns which compose the sections in this pattern 
sheet, were spun from mixes as follows: 

First section, No. 10 mix; 50$ black, and 50 dark olive. 
(We always give our mixes a distinguishing number.) 

Second section, No. 11 mix; 50$ red brown, and 50 white. 

Third section. No. 8 mix: 85$ black, and 15 orange. 

Fourth section, No. 14 mix; 45$ red brown, 45 white, 
and 10 orange. 

Fifth section. No. 13 mix; 45^ black. 45 olive, and 10 
white. 

Between each pattern stripe or section, and also between 
the outside ones and selvage, are two dividing threads, one 
of red and green D. & T. , and one of orange and black I). 
& T. This completes the full construction of the warp. 

The weaving of the pattern sheet is the next in order. 
For this purpose, we have five kinds of mixes for the filling, 
the same as used in the warp. After weaving in a fancy 
heading, we commence with the first or left-hand section, 
using filling of No. 10 mix, and weave in sufficient to bring 
the pattern or sample out square when finished; or as near 
that as we can calculate. Now we weave in two dividing 
threads, the same as in warp; this gives us the first regular 
pattern. Next we use filling of No. 11 mix, which corres- 
ponds with the second section, and weave the same amount 
as before; this gives us the second regular pattern. In this 
manner we proceed with the third, fourth and fifth sections, 
using filling to correspond with the mixes in those sections. 



52 



THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR. 



This will give us the third, fourth, and fifth regular pat- 
terns. We have now taken up each section in turn, and 
worked the whole width of the warp, making in all. twenty- 
five patterns, as herewith demonstrated. 



CD 
cc O 



03 X 



» - 
CD 
J. -+ 



CD 



o 



1 O 



o 






»o o 



5th filling 
No. 13 mix. 

4th filling 
No. 14 mix. 

3d filling 
No. 8 mix. 

2d filling 
No. 11 mix. 

1st filling 
No. 10 mix. 



From this illustration, it will be seen that patterns 1, 2, 
3, 4, and 5, are called "regulars;" that is. each one by itself 
is the same in both warp and filling. The remaining twenty 
patterns are called "irregulars," or, "hit-or-miss."— Some- 
times, called "bastards." It is in this irregular class of 
samples, that the designer often finds his most attractive 
and best selling patterns. 

Presuming that the warp was four yards in length, and 
having used only about 30 inches, or say one-fourth, of its 
weaving capacity in making the first series of patterns, we 
will now use five other kinds of filling, say of solid colors. 
and work off another series of twenty-five patterns on the 
same principle as before. Now we will break out a few of 
the warp threads in any one section, or all of them, as de- 
sired, and tie other colors in their place; this changes the 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 53 

plain work into stripes, with which we will use the first set 
of filling and weave another series of twenty -five patterns. 
Again, taking the second set of filling, we will weave the 
fourth and last series of patterns by running in, with each 
kind of filling, such threads as were previously tied in the 
warp, and in the same proportion, which gives us twenty- 
five plaid patterns; making in all, one hundred patterns in 
the whole pattern sheet. From this it will be seen, that 
there is no end, so to speak, to the number of patterns and 
changes that may be produced by following up this princi- 
ple of pattern weaving. 

On fancy warps, figured weaving, and cross-drawing-in 
drafts, it will sometimes occur that only a limited number 
of changes can be advantageously made. It is in such in- 
stances that the designer needs to bring into play his best 
skill, instead of working on the "go-as-you-please" system. 

The designer must use his own judgment, as regards 
the size to weave his samples. If he is to get out a sheet of 
fine, plain, and firmly woven samples, small ones will usu- 
ally answer every purpose. On the other hand, if he is to 
get out a sheet of large patterns, in the weaving, or dress- 
ing, large samples are preferable. 

We have made pattern sheets that contained as low as 
three and as high as nine samples in width; but the usual 
number is five, six, or seven, which makes a fair size 
sample without much expense. 

Our practice has been invariably, to make these sheets 
wide enough to finish three-fourths in width; this gives us 
a good basis on which to figure the weight of the goods, 
shrinkage, etc. — far better than if made narrower. 

Speaking about figuring on the weight of goods, it may 
be well to demonstrate here the manner of 

FIGURING ON THE WEIGHT OF CLOTH BEFORE WEAVING. 

Divide the number of ends in warp, by the number of 
runs the yarn is spun, and point off decimally two figures at 
the right of quotient; this quotient will then represent the 
number of ounces of warp in one yard of cloth. 



54 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

Example. — Suppose that we have a warp of 2160 ends 
of 4-mn yarn, and 20 threads of selvage on each side, or 40 
in all, of 2-run yarn ; how many ounces have we of warp ? 

Runs, 4)2160 ends. Runs. 2)40 selvage threads. 



5.40 oz. of warp. .20 oz. of selvage. 

Add together these quotients. 5.40 -(- .20 ~ 5.60 oz. the total 
weight of warp to one yard of cloth. 

To ascertain the amount of filling, proceed as follows: 

Multiply the number of picks per inch, by the number 
of inches the warp is laid in the reed; this product divided 
by the number of runs the yarn is spun, with two figures 
pointed off decimally at the right of quotient, will give the 
number of ounces of filling to one yard of cloth. 

Example. ^-Suppose that we put in 75 picks per inch, 
of 5-run yarn, and the full width in reed is 40 inches; how 
many ounces have we to one yard of cloth? 

75 x 40 = 3000 -^ 5 = 6.00 oz. weight of filling to one 
yard of cloth. This, added to the warp, gives 5.00 -f- 6.00 = 
11.60 oz., or near enough, — allowing for the "take-up," of 
yarn in weaving — to call it 12 oz. weight of cloth from loom. 

The above manner of figuring on the weight of goods 
previous to weaving, will give a good basis on which to 
make other calculation, if followed out closely. ( )f course. 
practical judgment is required, in order to estimate closely 
what allowance to make for the "take-up," which must be 
governed by the kind of weave used, size of yarns, and the 
strain on warp. Then again, the yarn must be accurately 
spun to the size figured on; if spun either too coarse, or too 
fine, the result of the figuring will vary accordingly: while 
if too many picks are put in, or not a sfficient number, the 
result will also be too large, or too small — as the case 
may be. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. DO 



CHAPTER XII. 

THREE METHODS OF ATTACHING A BACK TO FABRICS. 

The designer is often called on to produce light-weight 
fabrics in heavy weight. To do this, without changing the 
appearance of the face of the fabric, is an undertaking of 
no small importance; however, it can be done by attaching 
a back. This back may be attached by the filling, warp, or 
by both the warp and rilling methods. One of the principal 
points to observe, in this operation, is to have the binding 
done in such a manner that the effect will not be noticed on 
the face of the fabric when finished. 

In the manufacture of worsted fabrics, this fact has an 
especial bearing for the reason that imperfections, in the 
stitching or uniting of the textures, will show more in this 
class of goods, than in common woolens, and fancy cassi- 
meres. This is owing to the fact that worsteds are mostly 
made in the loom, or in other words, are woven narrower, 
and require but little or no felting. On the other hand, 
common woolens, and fancy cassimeres, are woven much 
wider, requiring considerable fulling, which has a tendency 
to cover up a great many defects that would otherwise be 
seen, especially in worsteds. 

There are three methods of attaching a back to fabrics, 
which we will illustrate; any one of which will answer for 
its particular purpose. 

First method. — This is what is called a filling back; 
that is, the warp works single, and the filling works double 
— one thread on the face of the fabric, and one on the back. 



56 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

To illustrate this method, we will take Fig. 1, which is 
known as the four-harness cassimere twill, carried out to 
eight threads both warp and filling ways, or in other words, 
eight harnesses and eight bars of chain, as numbered at the 
Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 

irpMOnM 1 1LTMBMMM 2 

2 MO iMia 3 2IMT ■■■■ -1 

:;■■__;-;■■ :a 5 aaaazsa ■ 6 

■ : ii ; a 7 <■ anaiii 8 
I ■■ ■■ 9 I1EJ ■■■ 

6 ■■ ■■ Jl ilSSIIHI 1^ 

■ n ■■ [13 ~aa inai i 

8«r-jn«Bnn«io hmi»j»i« 

— • li ii J* w> 3S *^> CO *" tiS*5>t«in15-^OC 

bottom and left-hand side. To this weave we will attach 
Fig. 2, which is called an eight-harness doeskin weave. 

Now, if we take Figs. 1 and 2, and unite them— one bar 
of each, alternately — it will give us a weave of eight har- 
nesses and sixteen bars. Hence, we will number the bars 
at the right of each weave or figure, in the order in which 
they will appear when united. 

Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. 

nnMinnMi i nnMonaa i 

:■■■■■■■ 2 ■■■■■■a. 

Qaancinn 3 nmnanja 3 

; in ■■■ ihii < aaa aaaa -i 

aa -.:■■ in 5 nnnnnaaa ■■□^■■□a 5 

naisi i 6 ■■mini 6 

■n^MIDZB 7 ■noMinnM - 

■ aaani 8 bzbbbbbb 8 
nnMionMi y llbb p :■■ 9 

■ ill 131! BEB3 '■■■10 

□MinnMin" DMinnMon 

aaoinii !■: aaaana u 

M«naMinni3 ■■ ' iaannia 

aa oaaian aa aaaaai i 

■□□■■nuMis a : aa bi"> 

BUI] II BI 

— liWJ*CiOJMCO — lilCJ-iiCKiac — ti W *■ iT 3i "^ X 

Fig. 3, shows the face weave laid out in its order for 
receiving the back. 

• Fig. 4, shows the back weave laid out in its order for 
receiving the face. 

Fig. 5, illustrates Figs. 3 and 4 united, making one 
complete weave, ready for the loom. — See Sample No. 2, 
made from this same weave. 

The main point to overcome, when attaching a filling 
back, is not to affect the appearance of the face of the 
fabric. To avoid this, the binding must be done in such a 
manner that the warp threads will all have the same ten- 
sion. This is accomplished by placing the backing weave 
in a position, that whenever, or wherever a back pick has 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 57 

a sinker, it should be preceded and followed by a sinker on 
the face threads, which will give us three sinkers in succes- 
sion, reading the warp way. This will bring the binding in 
between the twills alternately, as Will be seen by referring 
to Fig. 5. However, there are weaves with which it would 
be impossible to follow this rule closely: Sometimes a back 
pick may have to be preceded by a sinker and followed by 
a riser, or vice versa-, but in no case should it be preceded 
and followed by a riser on the face threads. 

Second method. — This is what is called a warp back, and 
is woven in a reverse manner to that of the filling method; 
that is, the .warp works double and the filling single. To 
illustrate this, we will take the same four-harness cassimere 
weave, Fig. 1, to which we will attach a back, one and one; 
that is, one thread on the face and one on the back, alter- 
nately. For the backing weave, we will take an eight-har- 
ness satin, Fig. 6, — as it proves to be well adapted in this 
instance, for even stitching. Again, we will attach a four- 
harness satin twill repeated to eight harnesses and eight 
bars. At the bottom of the face and both back weaves, we 
have numbered the harnesses in their numeral order; also 
a second time in the order in which they will appear when 
united or stitched together. 



Fig. 1. Fig. 6. Fig 



□nnnnnwn 

i :■ .. : n 

:zm: : 
:. ■ 
□SanSr 

:.: ■ 
■Bnnnnnn 
mnMonnn 

i-* to co a* en as -a <y > 



S OC O fcO i**. OS td^OSGCOt-S'fa.Oi 



Hence it will be seen, that in attaching a warp back, 
the number of harnesses have to be increased, while the 
number of bars remain the same — being just the reverse of 
the former method. Proceeding in this manner, we will 
carry out these weaves (Figs. 1, 6 and 7), in their respective 
order for uniting, which will give us Figs. 8, 9 and 10. 

Next in order, is the uniting of Figs. 8 and 9. To do 
this, we will take the working of a harness from each fig- 
ure alternately, and setting them down in their numeral 



nnMnna* 


: tan : ■■ i 


■■nrM.un 


manmu ~m 


nTM: IDH 


^■■□□■■a 


MM' " :■■□□ 


a :: '■■ ■ 


MtiW4-iiOi»IOO 


t-*cooi~4«e h- wen 




58 



THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 



order, it will give us Fig. 11. — See Sample No. 3, made from 
this weave. In a similar manner, proceed with Figs. 8 and 
10 r the result will be as shown by Fig. 12. 

Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. 

ppopkmpppppbpkp ppppphpppppppbpp pppppbpppppppbpp 

upbpbpppppbpm tjp pppbpc :: ipppppppS pppH.pppppnPB.pppp 

■ b :. ,: ina»n»nnnnn pppppppppbpppppp pbpppppppbdppppp 

■ ; ' b a : .;■..■: ppppppljpb ■:::::: ■ 

: .: i' i: :■::■: i mPBPBP ■: i: :: uppp zinnBPPPPnpp«pp 

■■mm m :■: :. pppppppmpppp pppbpppppppmpppp 

■prnpr: :!p»p»ppppe pmpppppp-ppppppi pbpppppppbppp 

■ppppcmpbpppppki nnnnnnPBnnauagnn ppphnnpwppppppp» 

!-*&»0?-~4C©i-*COCJ» H^9000UiU03 10 t£* OS CT O fcS <U OS 

Fig. 11. Fig. 12. 

ppppbpmpppppmmo : nnnm :: :: :rr •■■■n 

ppmbpppjpbpbpi: ::muu . a ■■■, g 

■pbpc ::iauumr.. : ' ■■■: : pp ■■■ 

U1L * ■ .;■;;■■ ■ .pp aaa .. pppmb 

ma •:;:::- ■ :■ : : abb: :n: :::: :■■■ : 

DPMPBPP ' .bbbppp beh : || EBB 

in :: b b ::::;.:: ■■■pppppmbbpoppp 

■ppnppSBMpgr 3y»g ■nmnnBMPnOBBBg 

It will be observed, by examining those figures, that 
wherever the backing threads rise, they come up in between 
two risers of the face threads; that is, one face thread is up 
on the right, and one up on the left — reading the filling way. 
This point should be observed, if possible, when attaching 
a warp back. There are instances, however, where this 
rule cannot be adhered to, in which case we must do the 
next best thing: — have a face riser on one side of the back- 
ing riser, and a sinker on the other side. In no case should 
a backing thread be raised to the face of the fabric, where 
there would be no riser on either side to join it. 

The next thing which we will call the reader's attention 
to is, that when required to unite two weaves, each con- 
taining a different number of harnesses, or bars, or both, 
they must be carried out to that point where both weaves 
will repeat at the same time. This can be seen in the case 
of Fig. 11; the cassimere weave being, originally, but four 
harnesses in width by four bars in length; and the satin 
eight harnesses in width by eight bars in length; in order 
to have both weaves repeat at the same point, the cassimere 
had to be carried out to its present size. But in the case of 
Fig. 12, the backing weave being the four-harness satin 
twill (Fig. 7), it will be readily seen, that both the face and 
back weaves have been doubled each way, or in other words, 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 59 

repeated to four times their original size, as four harnesses 
and four bars complete the full weave of either. We have 
carried these weaves out to their present size for the pur- 
pose of presenting a better illustration; besides, eight bars 
of chain are necessary to reach around the chain cylinder 
of the loom. 

Fig. 11, shows each alternate backing thread tied in 
each twill alternately. 

Fig. 12, shows each backing thread tied in each twill 
in succession. 

We will now illustrate the manner of attaching a warp 
back with two threads on the face and one on the back. In 
this operation the same points must be observed as previ- 
ously described, in regard to the uniting of the weaves, and 
having the number of tyings equal in each twill. See Figs. 
13, 14 and 15 completed for use; while Figs, 16, 17 and 18 
shows the backing plans, with the working of the harnesses 
numbered as they appear in the completed weaves. 



Fig. 13. 




Fig. 14. 


Fig. 15. 


nnn«BnnnnB«n 


nn 


•■■nnnn«»n 


nnn«MnnnMn 


□■□■□nrMMPD 


pm 


n«n«nn;-«««nn 


■■nnnn«Mnn 


■■: 


:.. bd :::: 


■■■nnnaannnn 


■□□□■ :■!:::::■■ 


■□ 


:■■■;::: ■■ 


a in ■■■pnnan 


nnnMDix emd 


nn 


bb rjr:::BB:j 


nojMHarjDnaaa 


!"!■■■: O M~BL]P 


umum. ,n«««nc 


nBHannranann 


■■nnraMtunn 


■■nn in :■■□!: 


■■nnnn»B»nnn 


■nnuBBBnnnan 


■m 


OBES BOB 


«nnn«n«nunM 


«—tSCO.t*CnOS'<10o;OOi- l tS 


*-tOW^Cn01"JCCiXC- 1.* 


i-N>es*.o«3><iar<DoP5 


Fig. 16. 




Fig. 17. 


Fig. 18. 


nnnn 




nnnn 


nnnn 


-nan 




■nan 


nnw3 


nnnn 




nnnn 


nnnn 


uunm 




ppn« 


nainn 


nnnn 




nnnn 


nnnM 
Snnn 


■□□□ 




■nan 


nnnn 




nnnn 


unmn 


□■nn 




nanij 


una* 


CO OS cots 




to OS cots 


CO OS COM 



Fig. 13, has four risers on one pick and five on the next, 
alternately, which is owing to the backing threads being 
tied alternately in each twill. 

Fig. 14, has four risers on one pick and six on the next, 
alternately, which is owing to the backing threads being 
tied in succession in each twill. 

Fig. 15, has five risers on each pick in succession, which 
is owing to the backing threads being tied irregularly; that 
is, the tying is different on each alternate twill, although 



60 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

each twill has the same number of tyings. This latter fig- 
ure will answer in some cases and be preferred to all others: 
but generally speaking, the two former are the most prefer- 
able, and thos,e usually adopted. 

Third method. — This is what is called a double or warp 
and filling back, and consists of the two preceding methods 
combined. This method is called by some, double weaving, 
owing to there being two warps and two fillings employed 
in weaving the fabric. While this may seem perfectly 
proper, it will be shown further on in this work, that what 
the author calls double weaves, are those having the iace 
weave doubled, or two separate fundamental weaves united: 
the object being to produce the same design, or a different 
one, on both the face and back of the fabric, in addition to 
increasing the weight, without the aid of coarse yarns: 
or, over-crowding of the warp and filling. Therefore, we 
shall confine this principle of weaving wholly to that of at- 
taching a back, whether of coarse, or fine yarns, and not 
for the purpose of adding beauty to the fabric, in the way 
of stripes, checks, or plaids on the back, as usually done by 
the regular double-weave method. 

To continue the subject, we will take the same cassi- 
mere weave as before, and to it attach a back, two and one; 
that is, there will be two threads on the face of the frbric, 
to one on the back, both warp and filling ways. To do this 

Fig. 19. Fig. 20. Fig. 21. 

i □□□■■□nnnMn pnnonnnnnnnn i nnnBrnnnrr: :bbd 

2 □■□■nnuMtMno nnnrannnnnnn 2 ci:i ::::■ m:.\: 

nnnnnnnnnnnn 3 hbib ibub 3 ■■□■o bbbh: 

4 ■■nnnnMnnnn ■» mm: :: - as 

5 ■nnngngnnnMn nnnnnnnnnnnn 5 mdi it m d 11 am : 
nnnnnnnnnnnn « bi ebeeb ■■■ e ■■: ■■■■«: ■■■ 

7 :]□□■■□□□□■■□ nnn :■;:■■■.::::■■.: 

8 □■£»□□□■□■□□ 8 cm: :u: : rm: :mgh 

MMMHGBaUBD 9 ■■■■■ HBBHBI | 

10MB] EMI :nnn !<»■■: :: '"■■: : 

ii«nnn«D«nnnBin ubi: r.: :m::m: v. :. :■: : 

nnnnnnnnnnnn i2HHnHHHiHnBMM rjaanaMaaanaH 

h-tS *fcCn -JOD 01— h-r5WJi*Cn05-<I00^O'-'t'3 h-t-OW^.OiOS-^lCZ'COOi— to 

we will carry out the cassimere weave to twelve harnesses 
and twelve bars, as shown in Fig. 19. By this figure it will 
be seen, that where the backing threads are to appear, on 
both the harnesses and bars — 3, 6, 9 and 12, — we have all 
sinkers. These sinkers are to be filled in by the texture of 
the backing threads, as shown in Fig. 20, which is really a 



TEXTILE DESIG^nTG, 



1.1 



two-barness plain weave, when reduced to its actual weav- 
ing capacity. Figs. 19 and 20, united, will give us Fig, 21; 
but, as this figure now stands, the face and back are not 
•stitched or tied together, hence it is not a completed weave. 
Fig. 22, represents Fig, 21 completed, and tied on the 
plan as shown by Fig. 23, being once on every third thread, 
both warp and filling ways; thus making four risers on one 
pick, and five on the next alternately— face threads. 



Fig. 22. 

i nnraaunnnBan 
■2 □■■♦■:!! nanann 

I BIBBS HPBBO 

•4 ■■d: nnaannnn 

5 annna^annnau 

r> ■HL~BBBBBCBB« 

7 nnnaa' DDEwq 
« niria: :: 'B*ann 

8 BBBBB BBBBB 

loaan; *n: 'aannnn 
iiB' :rr ■ '■: ;: : m* 

l-BB BHEBB BBB 



Fig. 23. 

nnnninnnnnnnn 

2 nainnnnnnnnn 
nnnnnnnnnnnn 
nnnnnnnnnnnn 

s nnnnnannbnnn 
nnnnnnnnnnnn 
nnnnnnnnnnnn 

s nnnnnnnnannn 
nnnnnnnnnnnn 
nnnnnnnnnnnn 

nnnnnnnnnnnna 
nnnnnnnnnnnn 



Fig, 24, 



i nnraannnnaan 

3 1IIII IBEII 

j bb;::; ,;:j aa,..unu 
• r . b ; na#ai n a* 

8 BB brbrb BBB 

7 nnnaa;. nnnaan 
s :'■♦■ m ■♦■ n 

U BBBBB; CBBEE j 

h'bbl; ;c: bb. . nn 
nannr b*bi Q ■# 

IE ECEEB 111 



Fig. 24, represents the same weave, and tied on the 
plan as shown by Fig, 25, being twice on every third thread, 
both warp and filling ways; thus making four risers on one 
pick, and six on the next alternately. — See Sample No. 4, 
made from this weave. 

Fig. 26, also represents the same weave, and tied on the 
plan as shown by Fig, 27, being twice on every third warp 
thread, and once on each face filling thread; thus making 
five risers on each face pick in succession. 



Fig. 25, 

nnnnnnnnnnnn 
2 nnannnnnannn 

nnnnnnnnnnnn 
nnnnnnnnnnnn 

5 nnnnnanHnnna 
nnnnnnnnnnnn 
nnnnnnnnnnnn 

s nnannnnnannn 
nnnnnnnnnnnn 
nnnnnnnnnnnn 

linnnnnannnnna 
nnnnnnnnnnnn 



Fig. 26. 

i nmaannrnaan 

2 BBBBB ICBEI 
:< C«nB : "'i !□■♦■□] 1 

4 aannnnaanrn*' 

5 BQ BBBBB BBB 

K a: ;: : ■•♦■nnnavj 
7 ; :r:naar;. :n*aan 

8 BBBBB BBBBB 

: b»b ■ .-ai.iann 
wuua n* aannnn 

I IBB QB EBB BBB 

i2annnanannnii> 



Fig. 27. 

i nnannnnnnnnn 
nnnnnnnnnnnn 

3 nnannnnnannn 

4 nnnnnnnnnnna 
nnnnnnnnnnnn 

b nr nnnannnnnn 
7 nnnnnnnnannn 

nnnnnnnnnnnn 
9 nnannnnnnnnn 
ionnnnn*nnnnnn 

nnnnnnnnnnnn 
^nnnnnnnnnnna 



Fig. 28, illustrates Figs. 20 and 23 combined, and rep- 
resents the backing texture, both warp and filling ways, 
in Fig. 22. 

Fig. 29, illustrates Figs. 20 and 25 combined, and rep- 
resents the backing texture, both warp and filling ways, 
in Fig. 24. 



62 THE SELF-INS TKUCTOR, 

Fig. 30, illustrates Figs. 20 (with the backing bars 
placed one nearer to the top) and 27 combined, and rep- 
resents the backing texture, both warp and filling ways, 
in Fig. 26. 

Fig. 28. Fig. 29. Fig. 30. 

mnmnmnnnn nnnnnnnnnnnn i □□■□□□□□onnn 

2 1 : :■-□□□ z nnmnnnncMnnn 2 ibibi aiasa 

3 ■■■■■ :bbhbbj BEaBi BBisBiB s ci rrncncMnnn 

4 □: a ■ 

5 nac lEBfnnnnna 5 nnmnaarinnnnai ■> ■■ ihhi ■■■ 

?■■□■■■■■.:■■■ 'is ibbbb ibb no □■□■□□nnn 

7 nonnnc rxMnnn 
a □mnancnBnna 8 nriBnnnanBnn » bbbbb 'bbbbbq 

9 BBBBB: IBBflflfl BBBB3 BBBBB B \ -nU^UUUU 

I I p [□ [□□ [D □nnannaninnnn wen; :□: u '□annn 

nnnna □□□□□::■ n.: ■ .b mi ■»■■ ■■■ 

bi bbbsi bbb uBs E3DBBB bbb unnananniannnii 

MMWJfcCnOiManOOHW i-'t5C0J*CncS'^JGnXiO^-t-3 K*fcSW *• 01 OS <I 00 CO O ** fcO 

These three latter figures were designed more especially 
to show the reader, the manner of drawing off and illus- 
trating backing textures, in this class of weaving; and, we 
believe them to be sufficient in their line. 

Figs. 31 and 32, are the same as Figs. 22 and 24, except 
the back filling threads float under eleven warp threads, 
instead of five. 

Fig. 33, weaves the same face as Fig. 26, but the tying 
is done in the opposite direction, and the position of the 
back filling threads are changed. 

Fig. 31. Fig. 32. Fig. 33. 

i nnnMKXinLMBn in:: an bbti i □□□■■»qpnMBin 

2 □■♦b:j :::b: :n 2 n«»«::"ni»iai 2 □■♦bt innBCMna 

■ laBBQEiiBRi laiQBiaaan bbbbb bbbbbb 

4 ■■□□□□■Mixran 1 Banna' :■■::□□□ 4 ■■□□□□■■■♦□l 

5 ■nactBi#«annBa 5 uu::nm*m: ;: :n>^ 5 BnnnB^B: r :cm~ 

6 BB BBBBBHBQB fl flfl HIMIIII1 >■ BBBBBBBH BBB 

7 u: iriBHiTj :□■■□ 7 : ;• ■■ :: :n: imnn 7 □' i»b'jij3: :hb* 
s : b:b ':.::-;:■♦■:-;□ 8 □■♦■ :: :nB»»an 8d«::b :i;"b«bdd 

9 BBBBB BBBBBB 9 BBBBB BBBBBB 9 IflBBBBBBBBB I 

!'>■■: :: : :bb :n i<>bb : bi n«««un ■■□ana 

iiBn-3BnB::n::B» nn: •; :za»m: ;::nB» iiHnn"BrjBnncB» 

l-BBBBBBBB BBB i:EBBBBBBB BBB 12Bin«BBBHBBBB 

The style of back attached to these three latter weaves, 
is more especially adapted for coarse stock, and a heavy 
backing filling, as it has less tendency for the back to show 
through, on the face of the fabric. 

It will be observed, that the stitching or tying in this 
method of backing fabrics, is conducted on the same prin- 
ciple as in the preceding method; hence it requires no fur- 
ther explanation in this direction. 

By this combined warp and filling method of backing 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 



63 



fabrics, a back may be attached to any weave desired, 
on every second, third, or fourth thread, as the case may 
require, by observing the following manner of running in 
or weaving the back filling threads: For every second 
thread, thus ( ■■■§ ) ; every third thread, thus ( M»Kg ) ; 
every fourth thread, thus ( ■5S"S5Sii ) '■> tying, in each case, 
as often as deemed necessary. 

Following, we present a few illustrations of standard 
weaves, with a back attached in various ways, which will 
more fully demonstrate our ideas on the question of tying. 

Figs. 34, 35, 36 and 37, are those of a double-pick or 
basket weave, carried out to twelve harnesses and backed 
every third thread, both warp and filling ways. 



Fig. 34. 



■."■p::pbpmppp 
■ ♦■ncnBDB 1 :nn 

HBBI EEEED I 

□c~m: - b: TZ'Mum. 
■ lino worn 

fl RSBI9 BHBQ 

■dbo ipb#bi ipp 

BIBB BDSaB B 

nnnBnBpnnBCB 
pppbt ibpppb^b 

I IliBBB 



Fig. 35. 

BBnnnnBBnnnn 
■B::nD»Bizcnn 

■ d: BBBEB BBS 

nnnannnnnEBn 

DOBBDUnOBBD 
BBBBB BBBIB 

■i .. unBann^n 
bb: :mnBBnnn*< 

BBCBBBBBCBBB 
nPPBBPPPPBMP 

p .: ■■ppp#*bp 
bbbbb bbbbb:: 



Fig. 36. 



Fig. 37. 



;ochu h»c 



BCBnnrBCBi inn 
B^an::: '■♦■n'^n 

BBBfl: BBBBBBB 

r:i:::Br:Bi.:n:..BCB 
ppl.b*bpppb»b 

BBBBBBB bebb 

■pbpppbpbppp 
■♦BnncB*annn 
bbebbbbbeb b 

pppbi mpppbdb 
pppb#bpppb#b] 

B BBEBBBBBEB 



■■nnn*BMnnnn 
■■♦nnn«M! _: Ppn 

BBBBB CBEBBB 
PPPBMPPC^BBP 

nnPBB^cnrBBn 

BB ESBBBBBBfl 

■beppcmbopp* 

■■pppp«H'*nr.n 
bbbbsbebdbb: 

PP*BBPPPnBBP 

nnnEEnpnnBB-f' 

BBBBBBBB BBB 



Figs. 38, 39 and 40, are those of the regular six-harness 
twill, backed every third thread, both ways. Figs. 41 and 
42 are the same weave, with a backing every fourth thread. 



Fig. 38. 



■nnnnn 
r:n::: e» 



PBPPnnnBBn 

PPPPPBPMP 

IB BBBBB. BBB 

nnriBB: ■r.mnn; ibbzbuP 
n«*BB: :: :: "PBPBBnppp 

BBBBB: BBBBB BBBBB 



nam 



BE: BBBEB BBBBI _. 

■ppp: " bbpbpj o own 
ppbgbb- t tib^bbp 
bbbbb bbbbb bbbbb 

jnpnBBPBnn 

3PB#BBPPPP 
EEBDB III 

■■■PHPrmnp 
' in 



■BO 

■■Of 

BBBBB BBBIB BBBBB 



Fig. 39. 

n: ::~b ♦ BBnnpnnBHBBn 

n' :nBBnBnnnnnBB»Bn: : 

BBBEB BBBBB EBBE3B 

pb»bbppp: inBGBa:::::: 
BBPBPnn^PBB ♦ annnnn 

BB DEBBEi: BBBBB Bfll 

BBnncn: im iBannn: 1 :b ♦■ 
b: :: : be»b :n: bb : 

BBBBB BBBBB BBBBB 

nn: nw •■■cnnnnB^iin 

nPPHB*B' tPPPPBBPBPI 
BB. BBBBB BBBBB: BBB 

pb::bb: ipb#bb1 D n :u 
bb*b :n: inriBBPBnnppn 

BBBBB BBBBB BBBBB : 

BfpPPPPB#BBPE :: :b: : 
■pppppbbmb: ;nr:: ii ibb# 

EB. BBBBB BBBBB EBB 



Figs. 43 and 44, are those of a six-harness basket weave, 
backed every third thread, both ways. Figs. 45 and 46 are 
the same weave, with a backing every fourth thread. 



(U 



THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 



Figs. 47 and 48, are those of 
twill, backed every third thread. 
Fig. 40. 

□nnaana' iannaaM<»» nn 

IBI11III BBHIIIB 

na^aa: :nixr :BOBBcnnnr 
■■ ■ n ^"■■♦■nnnnn 

bbbbb: :BBBBBBBBnBBB 
bb::: ■; ■ bb :■ :n r :a* 
■no :r~BB*Mnnnnn««a 
■ a iiiiiiibi iiiudi 

■ ■■ ' :: !■#■■□ 
mnaa^anrj: :r: -Banana 
■■■■■■■■::■■■■■■■■□ 
nanaannnnna^aannnn 
BB#BnnnnnBB^:Bnnnnn 
bbbbb bbbbbbbb :■■■ 
aannnnna ♦ aannnnnan 
■nnnnnaanannnnnaa *• 



the regular eight-harness 
both ways. 

Fig. 41. 



□nnnBBBnnnnnBBBn 
□□■□■■an !□■□■■□□ 

naana: : :: ■■♦■□□□ 



■■■:: 
■ ■: :: . 

■□nr 



^aaannnna 
:a:r ; : n :■■*» 



n: :nnaaannun* waan 

□nanaannnnanaanc 

■■«■ :n::r:aa:::Bnnn 



.i-nnnnnaaani: 
■■□an: -anaarnnnan 
inr i: BB^annnnaan 



: xff c — tiict-OTOi-^iQo 



Fig. 43. 



nnmnnwwL 
□□□□b*bb - 



M*aan 
[BOB a ; 



nnnna ■■ nnnnanaa* 
Banannn~*BB: :■": 

BBBBB BBBBB ■□■■■ 



BB«fl 


a a 

BB< 


:b; :; 
a 


: ' : i 


■ SB 




BB BSBaB 


■ ■■■1 


BBS 


x~™:.:b*bb: 




JLML 


:■■:! 


nnnna ■■' 




■ ■ «■■ : 


■■■■■□■■■■■' 


■ ■ana 


□□□□■□■■♦□: 


r b 


bb ; 


■ ■' «□□□□! 


■ fll 


b ,: 


3 *■ 


BB (iBBBB R 


BBB 


■■□■□□□a 


BI- 
BB 


■ ii 


. . ..-i 


■■♦■"innn 


a 


r 


■am Eimi didii 



»« t* C* •*• CnC9»4 06 5C* O H-»fcO Off -J 

Fig. 42. 

□nnnaB'BnnannBBBn 

□□■□■■□□□□anaBaa 
• -.■■♦■rjnn ■■♦■□n 

BBBBBBB BBBBBBD I 

■■■nan 'naaannnnn 
aannn^anaannnnan 
■□□□□■■#Bcrn hom* 

njaaannnnnaaan 
:::■ :bb": :: fl ■■ :: 
□■■<*■□□ 3nMB#«noa 

BBBBBfla EIIBBBBB 

[nnnnnaaa' :n\:nn 
•□□□□■n««: ino «□ 
Man :nas«B- ini "■■♦ 
bbi laaiflaa iibbb 



Fig. 44. 

□□□□□■■□■□annnaam 

nannnaanana -nnaa*i 



B I 



□□□ni 


■■♦■"□' '* :::■■□■ 


■□■Mr 


■' '■■' ; 


BBBB 


BBBBBBBB BBBB 


fl ■■ 


:: anaarinnna 


a: :bb« " 


. ..... 


'bb' b ; !□#■■□■ 


:: : :: :: 


naB^annnnnaanB 


■ E^DBI 


DULUJL 


ibbi mau i .naa: m 


■□■■[ 


in una ♦■■□□□□□ 


■ BBB: 


B1BEBBBB BBBB 


■ ♦bb: 


ji :: :nnanaannnnn 


fl BB 


"•;■:■■ :: 







Fig. 45. 



Fig. 46. 



■■■□□□□□■■■nnnnn 
■■■□□nncBBBDac 
■■■♦□□□□■■■♦□" 
■■■■■bb: hbbbbbb 

nnnnaaannn: :: a a an 
'bbb : tt riaaan 

fom bbb* :: :■■■♦■ 

■■■' :■■■■■■■' '■■■■ 

■■■:::: n: "■■■□ 'nnn 
aaannnnnaaannnnn 
■■■♦□□□□■■■♦nnr: 

BBBIIBB BBBBBHB 

ji^nnaaannnnnBaan 
□n^naBBnannnBaan 
nnmiii*nnnniH«' 

BBB BEBBBBfl BBBB 

i— tc zc o- -> zr. -v? x --D "S <— tz cc 4*. in C3 



nnanaaannnnnaaan 
x^naaa: :nan:'iMD 
!□#■■■ : ]□■■■□ 

■■■■■■■ BBBBBBBB 

■■■nrr ::::■■■: :::::: :□ 
aaann::: :: '■■■ :::::: in 
bbb' t: : >■■■ :: :: :.nn 
■■■■■■■■■■■: '■■■■ 
nnx ■■■' :: : ■■■:.: 
:""■■■' : "nnaaan 
. bbb ': :: <nai 
■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■:a 
bbb : :: :bbb: :: 

': ! 



■■■ :: : Baa 
bbb:" rib : :♦ 
bob bq bbbbb bbbbb 

— \Z ZZ -U w" 3. -I J- >C0 3 — tC CC .U in S3 



Fig. 47. 



a . - a' an: : 

•nnnasuaan 

■BBBB BBBBB : 

□□□""■□■■[-;■":□ 
nnnaa^aaxTn 

■ B BB3P1B BOB 

□■□■■□■' '□: :□□ 
■■♦■■nn^^nnn 
BBBBiq aaaafl 
■■n«notinan«u 
■■•:r.nnn"T*aa* 
■■' ibbii::hbi 



Fig. 48. 

■nnnnnnBn«Bn 
"□nnt !■■♦■■□ 
■■□■■■■■■■■■ 
ii '■ bb •■nn 
□□□■■"■■nnnn 
brbbbbbbbbb 
nanaBnanc 
■■♦Bannnn 

BBBBBBBB BBB 

Banaonon i an 

aan Tinrnnaan 

BBBBBCBBBBBB 

<— ti CO t£h 10 OS -^ QD ID O i- 1 t-Z> 



Fig. 49. 



Fig. 50. 



aanaannnnnnn 

■■♦■■□nnnnnn 

BBBBB EBBBR 

aa' :aar' n nnnn 
aacBB-nnnr 

EB BBBBB QBE 

nnnnnnaa: bb 1 : 
□di innnaa^BB : 

BBBBB BBBBB : 

nnncnraa: aan 

nnnnaaraan 

■a BBiaa bbb 

h-fcOW»tk.cnoa<iaoeD©r^fca 



anaanannnnnn 
B^Banannnnnn 

BBBBBEB BBBB 

BDaacannnnnn 
■□■■♦■nLinnaa 



nnnnnnanaana 
□nnnnna^aanB 

B BBBDBBBBEB 

:r:rar:BBr:a 
□□nnnnBrBa r '*- 



K ti M i. d Ci *•! CC' c c - to 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 



65 



Figs. 49 and 50, are those of the eight-harness basket 
weave, backed every third thread, both ways. 

Fig. 51, represents a herring-bone and double-pick text- 
ure combined — four-harness work. 

Fig. 51. 



aannaanmaannaannaannaann 


.. bb : hb b : :bb 

nnaannaannaan 


^na:. 


bb :; ■■ 


1UUZ 


BB! '[ .BB 


■nnaannMnaann 


IB ■ 


a :: bb: i 


BB BB SB B 


■: ■ 


a: T.mun: ; 


: .bb 1 : aa: a :: bb 


'IMl 


:bb ;: bb 


!.::;■■::: :■■:: ■■:: 


urn:: 


BB BB 



Fig. 52, represents the same texture as the above, but 
with a back attached every third thread, both warp and 
filling ways. We illustrate four methods of reducing this 

Fig. 52. 

■ »annnanM nnn w ♦ ■' :nr :■□■□□□■ ♦ annnanannn 

BBBB HflaHB HBBBB BHBaa BBflflfl BBBBB B 

nnaann: ;i ;aa :: :an: rinnmn' innan: \um: ;■: ;npana 
nn«*B:.:r:nM' a :n: :a*annnana:'j::T •■♦anncBCB 

I BIDHS ■■■■■ IlilB EBBIQ HBBBB BIBI 

B :: ::!! :■■: : : r ia' tmmi :: :: u ah; k o a iui :■. a :li: . 
bl~:bl;: ;. b*b 'li;:b' BanPB#>«nnnBn«nnn«<»«HBn 
HB9B nana™ Qflsaa: annaa aaaaa; mill a 

nnaau: rJi:.!BBni b .; :: ■■ ■ n: a :\ ;: .anBmnana 

nnnana:;nr.a*annna: :an: :: :■♦■"• - nnana - ::::■♦■ 

I IIIBB BQIBI BBBBfl; HDQEE! Bflflll BBBB 

innnnaann Eannaannnnaannana: nnanannn 







HWWJ-C'C- — - fii'4- x — CcTi H- 35 Oi *- CO -- 


r- C5 GC 4-. i— 10 h-*J- OT4-l- i -^i-'^00rf*. 






^-CJitOCO35Ja,l-'^iriCO00J-t-5Cni-'J^3iCOt0*' 


H^OrjW'-Cni-'MaWM-a^WCOM 






HWMt4^Q0MO(MtiC:00<JM^-0CAW<ICJ 


—» 00 35 tO >-* CO h- tO >£«■ tO i— Cn >-i tO 35 tO 






1— CnCOtO3S4^l->-<ICOt0GC.fcCOCnH 1 >£k.35tOCO-- 


!-*4*Q0tOI-»O»1-'t0C5tO ta ---I>— tOCOtO 




figure to its lowest terms, and of making out the chain drafts 


Fig. 53. 


Fig. 54. 


Fig. 55. 


Fig. 56. 


M ♦■□□□□□ 


aann*nnn 


■n#nnnMn 


anan»nnn 


aaaa aa ! 


BBBDB B 


■■■ :■ ■■ 


aaaaa a 


□□■■nnnn 


□■mlimi inn 


□■□□□□■□ 


naannnnn 


nnm»inn 


□naan#nn 


nar*nnna 


nanan»n.n 


■□■■■■SB 


anaa a a 


■■ ■ ■■■ 


BBBB B B 


annnnann 


■nnannnn 


annnnnna 


annannnn 


anannn#n 


aannnn*n 


annnvnan 


ana: ii ♦ 


■■■■nwD 


BRBsa a 


BBBB BB 




□caancnn 


naannnnn 


na: mm :nu 


naannnnn 


nnnanan*' 


nnaannn*' 


nannn*na 


nanannn#> 


anaaaana 


BBBBL;B:iB 


IB B BBR 


BBBB I B 


■nnnnann 


annannnn 


annnnnna 


annannnn 








— tO CO J- OT 35 -^1 GO 


BBBBBBUr; 


annnannn 


■nana inn 


annnannn 


ann irmn 


naannann 


hb: .■::: :nn 


aannnann 




naannna 


:: Mir in: 


namnnnn 


. :■; : . 


E 


nnnnann 


a:::: :: a : 


ain. nmnnn 


annnnnan 


E 


nannnun 


naannnna 


um-riiM' :n 


aannnnna 


: 


annnnnn 


nnnannnn 


nannnnnn 


nannnnnn 


■::•: : m :: 


nannannn 


b a : a: 


mm:: a :.;: i 


;;■;■: i 


annanann 


: a. :■: "~« 


nnannnnn 


nnrannnn 


V.HM l.V. Ill 


a ' a :a: ! 


a a ::i 


nnannnaEi 


. a :: ::..;: a : 


a : :: b a 


nnnannnn 


annnnana 


annannna 


nnnnnnan 


annnnnan 


nnnannnn 


nnannnnn 


nnannr.nn 


m :annnnn 


aaannnnn 


annnannn 


annnnnna 


nannnnna 


■nnaannn 


anannann 


nnnannnn 


nnnannnn 


nnnannnn 


nnannnnn 


nannnnan 


ihm:iu :~i 


annnnnan 


■nunnnain 


nnnnannn 


annanann 


a a :; ;: .a 


anannnna 


annnnnna 


naannnan 


nnnannnn 


nnannnnn 


nnnnnann 


annannna 








nannunun 


nannnrmn 



and drawing-in drafts as shown in Figs. 53, 54, 55 and 56. 
9 



66 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

The first method of reducing is made out in the usual 
manner, by commencing with the first left-hand thread and 
working or reducing to the right, which will require a chain 
draft and drawing-in draft as shown in Fig. 53. 

Second method, we reduce the face threads first, in 
their numeral order, then go back and take up the backing 
threads in the same order, which will require a chain draft 
and drawing-in draft as shown in Fig. 54. 

Third method, we commence with the twenty-fifth 
thread and reduce the double-pick (face threads), then go 
back and take up the four backing threads in their numeral 
order, after which we commence with the first thread and 
reduce the remaining ones, which will require a chain draft 
and drawing-in draft as shown in Fig. 55. 

Fourth method, we begin at the same place as before, 
reduce all the face threads first, then take up the backing 
threads in their numeral order, which will require a chain 
draft and drawing-in draft as shown in Fig. 56. This latter 
method it the best of all the others for the harness layout. 

Fig. 57, represents a herring-bone and basket texture 
combined — eight-harness work. 

Fig. 57. 

■□nniLMMnc: '.■■■■.-■■■■nnnn 
■■nnnown: ^■■■□□■■■■□nnu 
■ ■■ : ■ ■■■■ ■; :: aan 
inn :: .. :■■■■ : :: :: :■■■■: :: ::: 
■ Han :: :■■■: : : ' ■: r ;: :■■■■ 
: :■■ : : ■■■■ 
: □■■ p u aaii 



:■■■■ 
:.;:■■■■'■. : 



D^OiCn<-»i-»HH OiCnC 



Fig. 58, represents the same texture as the above, but 
has a back attached every third thread, both warp and 

Fig. 58. 

■■nnnnnnnBBn i ■■ [■■nnnnBMnB«Bnnnann 

■ b*z ■ n»«BiM-:; ::t. ^■■♦■■Snixnnin 

■ ■ :■■:]:! nndCMBnM in nnnf T n»MnMinnnnn 

■ i;:aiioB aaiai iibh ■■■■■ moa ■■■ 

:■■■♦■': ::::■■::■ :: : .::■♦:::::: . ♦■■:'■■ l 
uz\nmm::Mu- " w \ ■■ :::: ::;:bh ::.:~u :. ■■::■■::! 

■ ■■■■. :■■■■■ ■■■■■: :■■■■■: bieibb bibsi 

3nB:iB»*«j ::::■: :: :: :■♦■■: :. .: :««*BHn 

DflnnnDBjanBtt] nana BaaaMni □ □□nB«nB«n 

^tiica^cno:^oocDO^b5 0TakCoic^tii^o^ac^Oii--»-'W«--'--'Cs<i-<ico i <i--Jfc5 
M<iooooOiUMooih-b30s©ODCO<iHiosfcah-cnoM^MH l co-*M*>>t»bacni>afcaoe 

filling ways. We illustrate three methods of reducing this 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 



67 



figure to its lowest terms, and of making out the chain 
drafts and drawing-in drafts, as shown in Figs. 59, 60 and 
61: — on the same principle as before described — the latter 
method being the best layout for the harnesses. 



Fig. 59. 



■ppppppBPBMt- 
■bpppppppbbp 

BflflflflPBIBBBP 

■■♦■ppppppbp 
■■pmpppp:.pp 
ib b^did iii 

□■□■■■♦ ■□□n:^n 
QanaiDHH! pan 

HIBBCI IBIII 

pnn bpbb*bp: ; 
pppp; inrmmnmm 

IB IBBBB BBB 



ppppbppppppp 
pppbpppppppp 
nan. ipppppppp 
pmpppppppppp 
■ppppppppppb 
iipppppppppbp 
pppppppppbpp 
ppppppppbppp 
ransnoningnn 
ppppppbppppp 
pppppbpppppp 
■ppppppppppp 
■pbppppppppp 
■ppppppppppp 
■ppppbbppppp 
ipppbpbppp 
ppppppbppppp 
ppppppbppppb 



Fig. 60. 

bppppbbbppp^ 
bbppppbbpppp 
1ibeibccei i 

■■■notiDM#nnn 

bbbbpppppppp 

bbbbbbbbpbpb 
pbbbbpppp^pp 
ppbbbbpppppp 

BBBBBBEQB fl 

a ,pbbbbppp*p 

I .PBBBBPPPP 
flflBBBBBB ■_■ 

bbppppppbppp 
noBBDnHBnMnin 

ppppbbppppbp 

ppppppbbpppb 
pppbpppppppp 
□□■□□nnnBgnn 

pbpppppppe 

■□nana ipipppb 

pppppppbpppp 

ppppppbpppbp 

pppppbpppppp 

ppppbppppbpp 

bppppppppppp 

bpppppppbppp 

bppppppppppp 

■p: .pppppbpp 

ppppbppppppp 

ppppbpppppbp 

ppppbppppppp 

ppppbppppppb 



Fig. 61. 



■PPPP*Pt 

■pppppBnnpBB 

BBBPBPBBBBBB 
BPtPPPBBPPPB 
BPPPPPBBBPPP 



□■□♦1 PBBBPPP 

pbpppppbbb: i: 

■BflPflPBBBBBB 

PBPP^PPPBBBP 

■ ; ■: BIBB 

BB B' BBBBB_B 

■ppppppppppp 

■PBPPPPPPPPP 
MPPPPPPPPPPP 
BPPBPPPPPPPP 
PBPPPPPPPPPP 
PBPPBPPPPPPP 
PBPPPPPPPPPP 

pbpl pbpppppp 

■ xtpppbppppp 

:: b .: .: bb : 

ppl.bpppppppp 
i :■:;. :.;■;:..; ;■:;: 

PPPPBPPPI 31 "MB 
PPPPPBPPBPPP 

B 
PPBPPPBPPPPP 
BPPPPBPPPPPB 
PPPPPPTPPPBP 

■•■::: : :bp: 

PBPBPPPPPPPP 



By referring to the above combinations (Figs. 52 and 
58), the reader will observe, that in each of them the back 
filling threads are woven in the same every time; that is to 
say, there are the same number of risers in succession on 
each of those picks, across the whole width of the pattern; 
or, in other words, no break in the risers where the weaves 
change. This is a point which should be observed as much 
as possible, in combining weaves with a backing; thus pro- 
ducing an even back to the fabric, and often doing away 
with bad effects on the face. 

We have endeavored to demonstrate this subject of 
attaching a back to fabrics, in as plain a manner as possible 
on paper; and should anyone interested herein, fail to com- 
prehend our meaning, we would advise copying off on 
design paper, such figures as they do not understand, ob- 
serving carefully the working of each harness and pick as 
they do so. This will prove of great aid to the beginner in 



68 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

enlarging his mind to a better understanding; or, in other 
words, he will accomplish in this manner, what he might 
not have accomplish in several hours of continuous reading 
the subject. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

COMBINING WEAVES ILLUSTRATED. 

Combining weaves is an important branch in the art of 
textile designing. It is not only important, but it covers a 
great field; in fact, so great that it is beyond the power of 
man to comprehend its scope. Hundreds, yes, thousands 
of designers, have been engaged in this business for many 
generations, and yet, new combinations are being brought 
out every day. How utterly useless then, for us to attempt 
to cover the field, in its entirety, in a work of this character. 
Therefore, all that we shall attempt to cover is, to bring up 
and illustrate the principal points, obtained by practical 
experience in the business. 

In the first place, generally speaking, a complete break 
or cut-off should be made when reversing the position of a 
weave, or combining it with that of another, if possible to 
do so; and thus avoid threads from floating over or under 
each other any more than required in the regular weaving 
of them. 

In the second place, when a sufficient break or cut-off 
cannot be made without causing too much of a float, an- 
other method of weaving for one, two or more threads, as 
the case may require, should be introduced between such 
weaves, to form the cut-off and properly unite them. 

In the third place, avoid combining weaves of too great 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 69 

a difference in the textures to be used in the same design, 
as such are apt to cause the fabric to weave either too tight 
or too loose in their respective places; thus making more or 
less trouble and dissatisfaction from the weaving to the 
selling of the goods ; besides, greatly impairing the wearing 
qualities. 

In order to demonstrate the points spoken of, we will 
call the reader's attention to the following illustrations: 

Suppose that we wish to make a fabric consisting of a 
four-harness cassimere twill, and a double-pick or basket 
weave, combined as follows: 

16 threads, right-hand twill; 
4 threads, basket; 

16 threads, left-hand twill; 
8 threads, basket: — in all, 44 threads with a perfect 
cut-off, — it will give us Fig. 1. 

Fig. 1. 

ppMPnMPP*BP~MPPMPPMPPMMPPMMPP«MPPMPPM 

'■■; [i iMDD ■■nnwwp#« < ■□□■■□! MM ipmhppbpi IMPPMB 

iiDDiKj ■.■ppbippmppmppmp ■■ ■■ a ■■ ipbmpp 

mppmppmppmpp«<><>*-*p«bppbmppmppb:»:pp«ppmmpp 

The manner of combining these textures would prove 
all right in many cases, but were it required to run the fill- 
ing two and two of different colors, and have the basket 
show the same in both places of the pattern, — either a per- 
fect pin-check or stripe— it would not answer the purpose. 
For it will be seen by referring to the figure, that while the 
eight threads of basket, at the right, were weaving as de- 
sired, the four threads of basket, between the twill stripes, 
would produce a broken appearance as shown by the differ- 
ent characters; or, in other words, they would appear as 
though woven pick and pick. Hence the combination must 
be changed so that the basket, in both places of the pattern, 
will stand in similar positions. By referring to Fig. 2, it 

Fig. 2. 

ppm— ■■" -■■: :nn: :uuu: 'pmppmppm- :pbmpp«bppb« 

hi kb :*h • :bh ♦♦♦:-:■■:-::■■'■;:■■- ; ■::::■■'"■■ 

■■; :: :bb :::■■::::■■::::■■; : mm ■■ : ;■■ n .. bb: bb: :: : 

■ppmppmppmp: :♦♦♦ ■x-;-mppmppmppmpmppbipp 

will be seen that this point has been overcome; but the re- 
sult is, we have not got a perfect cut-off, there being three 
risers and three sinkers, side and side, on each alternate 



70 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

pick, as shown by the different characters. Now, this will 
not do in a texture of this kind, for in those places the fab- 
ric will show an over-shot appearance, which will spoil the 
effect of the basket figure. If, for certain reasons, it were 
essential that just 44 threads should be retained in the pat- 
tern, and have a perfect cut-off, then change the position of 
the middle basket figure, and the first thread on each side 
of it to read as shown in Fig. 3. But if it were not essen- 

Fig. 3. 

□■■□□■■lximm: ::::■■ bb ;♦: :; en ■■ ■■ ■;:::■■ rmm 
bb : bb :bb:i: urn: >::;:■■ b bb ■□ : ■■ bb ■■ :; 

ManMnuMnnMnQtnnBMvBMmMnnBMnnMnMBanMnn 

tial to retain 44 threads in the pattern, then take out those 
threads on each side of the basket, and transpose this basket 
figure, as shown in Fig. 4; the result is, there are now but 
fifteen threads in each twill stripe, while before there were 
sixteen. 

Fig. 4. 

naBHnnBBr-inMBnn«nnBBnBBnniBnrB»an«Bnr:»BnrBM 
bb :■■ : bb: :: bh: : bb: : :■■ : ■■ i: ii i !■ ■■ 

be bb :: bb : bq .bb: :. a : .bb: i: bb :bb. ,: :na bb : 
b i .bb. :: bb :: bb :: bb :bb :; bb :l ;bbu: wbljbbiiubbix: 



Fig. 5. 



□ BB 

: BBS 

: :: :bbb 



■IB : BBB BBS BBS B BBB I BBB 
BOB i: BBB .. BBB BBB : Bfl !" BB :! BB i: : IB 

bbb bob :: :. dbb bbb : :bbb :; :b: : :: bbb : :: :b 
b : bbb ::.:: a ; bbb : bbb bbb bbb bbb ■■ 

BBnnnBBannBBnnL.'BB^r^.rBBB: :. bbbeebbbd] :bbb:h:bbb;=o3 
BBBnpnBpanBBBnnnBnanBBBncnBBBQBBB: innBBB-BBBnnn 

Fig. 6. 

BnnnnBBBBnnnnBBBBnnanBBBBDBBBBnBBBBnnnnBBBBnBBnn 
bbp: : : aan innnBBBBunnBBBBn ibbbbexibbb' in xiBB Bni :bbuH 
■bb: ::i: :. bb in: ■■■■=■■■> inniHiannii^": riinr:nBina 

BBBfl' :: :: :a: ri' niHBB bbbb iinnBHBBnnnnBnnBnBPP&iBBnn 
□bbbbpoi :□■■■■: panBBBBnnnnBanaaBng laBBBBC jpp nB apB B 

nnBBBBM::cBBBBnnnnBBB-z:::::-:BB: ::innBB* 'ixmbbbet :naannBB 

nnBBBBnnBBBBnnn; :«u::n: ibbbdu-IIbbb' :: :iii«:iniHnnH 

nSnnBBBBnBBBBnnnnBnnnnBBBBncnnBBBBnBBBBnBBBBPLiBB 

Fig. 5, illustrates a six-harness twill and basket weave 
combined. 

Fig. C, illustrates an eight-harness twill and basket 
weave combined. 

On looking over the above figures it will be seen, that 
in each one of them the twill stripes contain an uneven 
number of threads. From this, we wish to have it under- 
stood, that in order to combine twills with basket weaves 
so as to have the basket figures stand in the same relation 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 71 

to each other, there must be an uneven number of threads 
in the twill stripes or figures. But bear in mind, this is not 
necessary when using all one kind of filling, or when run- 
ning a filling pattern to produce a hit-or-miss effect. 

When reversing regular twills, which contain an even 
number of harnesses, for the purpose of producing herring- 
bone effects, the cut-off should be made at the completion, 
or in the middle of the twill, the same as shown in Figs. 7, 
8 and 0. 

Fig. 7. Fig. 8. 

PPMPPMPPM LMMtlUMCPI WEWMXM 



bd ■: :: so ■ 
■■ppmppmpp 

■ppbpmpbpbp ■ 



■■■: :bpppmpp«pi 
uMum: ::;: ■■■' : : ■■■ 

ppmp: :bbhpbppmp 

■ ■pp: ;■: bhi :: ■■ m 

■■■PPPMMPPPMMPPP 



Fig. 9. 



MPPPP*M«PPPBMMPMPPPM«P 
■■ PPP PMWP! ■■■■PPMPPMPP 
■ ■■PPPEMPMBBBP. 1PMWMP1PPP 

■■■ MPP P1 :ibbi: o ipmmpppp 

PBMBPPPMBPPPPB.-iMHPPPBl 

■pmmppm: :pp: ■■: : bbipphb 
ppphmbbphpppr ■ ■■pppbpbm 
ppppb0mppppjmmppppmbbb 

Each of these reversings may of course be carried out 
to any size of pattern required. 

The above described points apply equally the same 
when combining twills and basket weaves, into patterns of 
blocks, checks, or diamonds of any size, and of any number 
of different combinations. 

Fig. 10. 

mpppmmpppm1bpmbpppmmpppmpppbpbmpppmbpppbmp 
■■ :ppbmbpbp: ::::■■■! ippmmpi :pbpmmpppmmpppmmp*pppb 
■mm: jpi :■■■:;■■■. [■pppBBMpppMBf pppmp ppm mBi bpp i MMP MBM : 
pbm*pppb*bipppbpppbibbpppbimh[::hbh: wppi annQ [■■■pppb 

PPBBBPPPBPHMHL-ipnMBB :rj:--BIHBPHPPn*H»Pr:PBHBPPPMPBBIBP 
PPPBMPPP«PPPBPBMPPP*MPPP«*MP1MPPPBJMPPPBPPPM 

Fig. 10, illustrates the manner of combining a cord with 
a twill. In this figure, it will be seen that on each side of 
the cord, one thread is run in on the plain-weave principle 
to make a perfect cut-off for the cord. This is a rule quite 
commonly adopted in this class of weaving, and often two 
threads are wove in as a plain weave, in place of one for a 
cut-off. However, it should be borne in mind that these 
threads, in many instances, should be of a strong and elas- 
tic nature, in order to stand the extra strain which comes 
on them. On this principle a cord may be combined with 



72 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOK, 

any style of weave. Although in some cases it is advisable 
to run both the cord and cut-off with two picks in a shed, 
instead of one. If two colors were used in the filling of 
this pattern (Fig. 10), and run in pick and pick, the two 
outside cords would be the same in color as one of those 
colors, and the middle cord would be the same as the other 
color; hence the position of the cords must be governed ac- 
cording to requirements, on the same principle as demon- 
strated in the first four figures. 

Fig. 11. 
■■iiiiiaiii iiaiuHm^n ^■■■■■■"n~ r :MMMMn~nn 

■ui=i :i ■ nisi ■ h :■ ■ :■ ihiii a b bbbbb ■ :■■■■■ 

■ ■■iiiBoaai iiiiiiiiiii : : itaiiai :: ■■■■■■: :: :n 
::■::■ ■ ■ ■ anai ■ a n :■.:■■■■■ a ■ sibii i ■ :■■■■■ 
iiaiiuiiaa aiian niaiii 

■ ::■ ■ ■ :■ ■ ■■■■■::■ ■ ■ ■ ■■■■■ ■■■■■■■■ a aaaa 
■iiiaiiini :• aaaBaaaBiaa iioin | ": '■■■■■■nnnD 

i ■ b i a mil ■ n g ■ nam b a auiii ■ ■ Dim 

Fig. 11, illustrates a combination of ribs and cords; as 
here show, they represent but one independent weave, for 
neither the rib nor the cord texture alone, make a complete 
weave. Observe the position of each, which may be carried 
out, or reduced to whatever size required. The texture of 
this figure, forms a sufficient cut-off in itself without insert- 
ing special threads for such. 

Fig. 12. 



a a aa 
■::■!"■ 

■ a n a 

■ a as 



6-hnr. 



mwrm~M 

■■■nan n aa 

HBMBZB bib a 

a in : uzMm-m 

B 111 BEBMBIi 

diagonal. ■■Q 



3-har. 



a :□■■] - mwa mmMmucMmnunmn 

aa a ii '■■: asa :■■ a 

ii ii aa ■■ : aa hi b ■ 

■■' I! ii aa :: aa aa :: ■■'■■:.: ■ n ■ 

■ :■■:■■ u~ ■■ "■■■■□■□ ■■ ■■ : 

■ ■ ■ ■■ ■■ sa ai ii rn ai 
: :■■ ii bo aa : as bbi :■ a ■■ a 
ii ii ■■ : ■■ ■■■■■::■ ■■ n 

I . II IB I IB aa 111 □■■DBS 

:: ii i ii ii '■-■■■■"■■□ will. 

l:i hi :* ■■: :: aa :: ai :■■: : aa ■ n — 
:.:■■::■■: n ...:ib:_;ibui:ib^-jii^::z:iil;i 



Fig. 12, illustrates a six-harness diagonal combined 
with a cassimere twill, and basket weave. Although there 
is a perfect cut-off in the twill and basket combination, yet 
it will be seen, that such is lacking between the twill and 
diagonal. However, in this place it is not necessary to have 
a perfect cut-off, owing to the nature of the diagonal being 
such that a float under four threads would not be out of 
place. The diagonal in this figure is, of itself, a combined 
weave as will be seen: If we commence with the top bar 
and take each alternate bar or pick, and set them down un- 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 73 

der each other in the regular order, it will give us the six- 
harness diagonal; and the remaining bars handled in a sim- 
ilar manner, will give us the three-harness twill. 

Fig. 13. 

■□□■■□nB«nnB*nn'BnBnMnBn*DMnBaHaBnaBBanBBnr«nninn 
■■□□■■! «□! ■■nail innrcnoim n ;■: :■: ■■n«nnBnn«nni»nnBaE 
pmb* ■■■:::■■: : ! v«: :bbb: :■:::':■■■: .■ inauil ■■ n :■■: hb ■■ 
npMPPBTM" :; ■■■ppppmbb'v ./ ■■■■n::B«n«M :■■::: :■■□■■ 
■□□■■' !-■■: v am :: bbbb :□: iPMMPpppMPPMixnUH II na 'Man 
»:■■■''■■ ■ :: ■;:■■■' : b abb m:: :m: :::■:::■■:::■: 
I. ■■ . an : :■■ . ■ ■■ ■ ■■■!■■■■■ ai :■■:■■ urn 

PPBBPPMPMPPMBP*PMPMPB.PBPB:PBPBPPB.BPB.K::BB.PPBBPBM 

Fig. 13, illustrates a peculiar combination, particularly 
the middle part, which is often used in both light and heavy- 
weight goods. The texture is such that by aid of the cot- 
ton stitch, it can be readily applied with nearly any weave, 
and yet produce a sufficient cut-off. 

Fig. 14, illustrates a five-harness doeskin and a five- 
harness diagonal, combined. This does not make a perfect 
cut-off, yet it is so near, owing to the nature of the weaves, 
that no extra floats will be observed. From this it does not 
follow that these weaves could be placed in any position 
with each other, and obtain a similar result. For, were we' 
to move the diagonal up one pick on the doeskin, thus 

Fig. 14. 

>:■■■■■-;:;■■ 

5-har. a BaH ■■■ o-har. 

■ PPH BH3B B BH £«□■■ 

nriBBM ia ii mrsm : ■ as 

■ aa :■■■■:■■■ ■■ a 

■BB BBB HBBB II ID 

BB ■ I ■■■■■ in ■ n a 

twill. ■■nBB'SnSnS diagonal. 

throwing the top bar to the bottom, we would then have 
seven risers side and side on the sixth bar. Hence, it will 
be seen that when combining weaves, which will not admit 
of a perfect cut-off without inserting extra threads or har- 
nesses for such, the best position in each of them for uniting 
is found on the cut-and-try principle. In the diagonal there 
is combined a twill and diagonal of five bars each as shown, 
which are found in the manner previously described. 

Fig. 15, illustrates a five-harness doeskin, of both warp 
and filling face; also the same texture arranged into twills, 
of warp and filling face; all of which are combined into a 
block pattern, forming a complete cut-off. In this man- 

10 



74 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

ner an unlimited number of different combinations may 
be made; and of which, such are used in weaving ladies' 
dress goods. The three and four-harness weaves on this 
principle are also used quite extensively for that purpose. 

Fig. 15. 

□■■■■□□□□■□■■■■nnncM 
■■■ ■nHunLwrjMBDBnMn 
■r.MBBnnnBn«Hn««nr::Mnn 
■■■■: :■: :::::; ;■■■ ■: ■ :: 
■■".■a. :: :■ : :■■■■: :■ :nnn 
r; ■ :■■: ■■ .: : :■: ■■■■ 

;i :■: aaaa :::::■::■: :■■■ 
Ubcl:;: :■■■: :■: :' :■: :: :■■: ■■ 

: ;■; :■ aaa :■:.:: : ■■■: ■ 

Speaking of block combinations, perhaps it may be well 
to illustrate a figure method which we use when combining 
weaves of an equal size, both ways, that will make a per- 
fect cut-off. For this purpose, we will take the four follow- 
ing four-harness weaves, and call them 1, 2, 3, and 4; and 
when using any one or all of these figures, they will each 
respectively stand or represent that full weave. 

1 * 2 3 4 

■ aa nnnai dimm □□□■ 

■ ■■ nnan «n ■ ■ 

■■"■ nana ■□■■ □□■□ 

■■HO ■□□□ ■■■□ *□□□ 

Suppose that it were required to combine all of these 
figures (weaves) into a small block pattern, on the plan of a 
twill, we would arrange the figures to read as below, which 
would represent a pattern of sixteen threads both warp and 
filling ways, as shown in Fig. 16. 

Fig. 16. 

■: ;■■: :: ■: :■■: ■ b 

■ ■: :■: :■: : ■: :■■ : ■ 
■■■: :annnawi :«nnn 

12 3 4 ■ ■■■■' : ■ '■■■ 

2 3 4 1 ;.■::■: ;■■::: ■ .umcm 

3 4 12 : ■■■ ,:i :■: :■■■::- :■ 

! 1 - -• ■ id :: :■ :■■ ■: ■ 

■ ■■' ■: :: :: ■■■:■: :n 
a :: ■' :■■■: : a aai 

nac::* ■■::. ■UMnM 
nn»r:«B: :■ :■: i:an«i 
■nan«MBD«nnn«ai«n 

Now we will take 1 and 2 only, and combine them into 
another style of pattern by arranging them in the manner 
given below, which will give us a pattern of sixteen 
threads, both warp and filling ways, as shown in Fig. 17. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 75 

(Of course, it will be understood that this style of patterns 
are designed more especially for ladies' dress goods, than 

for gentlemen's wear.) Fig. 17. 

a— naD wgp DMDncM 
■DMinaMDDDjBLinain 

■■PBPflpppflPP: u :: 
■■■□■□nBMDaaBnpa 

pppflPBflfl:. .'■■■pppbi 
noonui :■■; :pbo 

PflPPBl" ■■■: ■" 'IPP 

■an nMHnmnMDDn 

pppa: :mmmrMuunnrM 
prflpfli »«*n«wnn«a 
annnw i .■■■ebcmdli 
■pppflflfl: immnMEO: 
uuuuuiTumwrd'imnmmm 
□□■□ppmpp: '^papaa 
Pflppp.BPPPflppflflPfl 
■uncwnEinBnnnwiBP 

Again, we will take the same numbers and arrange 

them in another position, which will give us Fig. 18. 

Fig. 18. 



1 2 


2 


a 


2 1 


1 


2 


2 1 


1 


2 


2 2 


2 


1 



pflflflpppflpppflpppflpppipi- 
■□■MncBnanann: :;■□□□■[!•■□■■ 
■■Pfl-pflpppflnppflPPPB: :: :■■' ■ 
■ an flpppflpnpflP' •□■ ■::: :■■■:! 
. v abb: hi asi :■■■:: .:;■ 
ppbl:b" ■■■::■■■::■■■:.■■ «□ ., o o o 1 

pb .iPBBPBBBDBBBPBBB: ■ ■ 12 2 2 2 1 



jpppib'b M»r:»iniH::iDna 
pppbpbbbp: ;nBPix:BPBBBnppi 



2 11112 



l:::b:.b: bb ; ■ ■ ■ ■■ a: 919919 

■ ia 1 ■ : ;: ■ : ebb ■::■ 1; * - 1 a <* x * 

■pppbbbpb' :ppipppiibpbppp 2 12 2 1 2 

■: ■ :■■■: :: ;: ■: : pb .bbbl:: :pb * ± * * ± a 

ppbpbpbbppbpcpbpbdbbppbp 2 11112 

['■::;:■■■ '■a::inr]Hrjninn , ' ' „ , 

■pppbbb' wanna. ippbbbpbppp 12 2 2 2 1 

nnnaaBBB' 'Bbbpbbbpbbbpppb 

PPM! 'BPIBIPBflfl ■■■ ■■ ■ 
: fl . mb iri ibb hi b :b 

b :: eaa ■■■ 111 111 .a: inn 

pbbbpdpbpp; :b: .. ::a:::; ■"■■■ 
M"«icainnni: :: :: :ap; :: :bpb: :bb 
mbpbpbpppbpppbpppbppbblib 
■bbpbpppbuppbpppbpppbbbp 

Again, taking 1, 2, 3, and 4, we will arrange them so 

as to produce the pattern shown in Fig. 19. 

Fig. 19. 



3 2 112 


3 


22112 


2 


114 4 1 


1 


114 4 1 


1 


2 2 112 


2 


3 2 112 


3 



PBBBPPPBPBBBPBBBPPPBPBBB 

■■cacDiniuHiciianiniui 
■pbbpbppbb^'bbbpbpbppbpbb 
bbb' :bppcbbb: ibbb-b: 1: ■■■ 
1 pDMOPPW :BBBi;BBBnppBnr'PB 

PPBPPPBPBPBBBVBBPPBPPPBP 

■ ■ an in n .a ,; :: a 

■ :: : :a: :::::■■■: in 1 : tb; .: 

; ■■■:;■■■ :ppiu: n: bbb; bbb 
a bbb hb :bpppbppb: :bbbpbb 

■ a bbb b a :: :. .a' aa 111 1 

BBBPBBBPBPPPBPDi 'BBBPBBBP 

niiijiBB □□■ ippbpbbbdbbb 

■PBBBPBBPBPPPBPPBPBBBPBB 

■■ in ■ ■ ;: a ii in ■ 

BBB BBB ■ O I HI ■■■ 

P' 'Pi' :: .: '■: :■■■: :■■■' xipbhp.'B 
;• a : ::b:_'b: bbb: bb : 'bpppbp 



pi 



]PPBGP 

a ; .: a: :p: 



bb a' : b: :a bbb ■■ : ■ ■■ a 
1 ii a fli ■■■ fl a :: a .bb 

BBBPBPPPBBBPBBBPBPPPBBBP 



?6 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

Thus it will be seen, that there is no limit to the num- 
ber of combinations which may be made with these four 
simple weaves. These combinations may be enlarged to 
any size required. 

By this figure method, a designer can put his ideas on 
paper much quicker,— without even using either design 
paper or characters — and thus be enabled to lay out in a 
few minutes, large designs which would otherwise have 
taken several hours to accomplish. Of course, he will have 
to familiarize himself sufficiently with it to keep in his 
mind the exact weave, and the position which each figure 
represents, in order to see, as it were, the run of the texture. 
After having completed the design to his satisfaction, it 
may be drawn on design paper in the usual manner if re- 
quired; although, both the chain draft and drawing-in draft 
can be made out from the original work. 

Fig. 20. 



pppbbbpbbbp: !□■■■ 1 


1 aBB~PPBBBPPPB 


■ ■■ ■■■ ebb :; h 


bbb bbb::::: mb 


■ ■a ■■ :■■■ : ;• ua 


^■■i :ppbbb" :pbbb 


bbb : a. :. : abb :: bib 


bbb ■■■ :: BBB 


■■ ■ ■■■ ] ESI 


BBB ] 1 BBB I! II BBB 


■ : ': bb :: ■■■ :: □■□ :: 

BBBEB B ! ■■■ All 


BB BBB 1 1 BBB ' 


sbb i : bbb : bbb: : 


■ ■: : : ■ ■■■ i ■■■ 


BBB P! :BBBPP:.:BBBPr 


■ ■■ ii :■■■ : ■■■ :: 


BB: II 1 BMPPPBMPPC 


pppbbbpbbb: ::::.:■■■ 


b ~ bbb : : bbb ;: : B 


upbbb. :■■■: n :■■■ I :: :■ 


PPI BBB : : BBB BB 


PBBB. . ■■ l :: mbib aa 


PI BBB I 'BBB : : .BBB 


■ □a :: li a . bbb : bei 


bbb. in :: :: bbb:: 


■ ■: : ■ ■■■ q l bjhb : 


sob bbb bbb:::: 


b bb bbb : : ebb ::: 


bb: ii : bbb : : ■■■ 


D B9B :■■■ : : bbs : 


B IP BBB : BBB. B 


lama ■■■: :: :: ■■□ :ppb 


III .. Ill' . IB 


BB IP ■ Q ■■■ HBE3 


bbb:.: : .bbb:: .bbb :. . 


■Pen bb: n '■■■ :i n ana : 


aa in ebb : 


pppbbb bbb : : ■■■ 


■::: : :bbb bbb .: : a 


BBB Ifll 111 B 


P : BBBPPPBBBPPPBB 


BBB . BI III BB 


BBB III III 


III B BBB..: BBB 


pbbbp: p:bbbpppbbbp 


■■pppbp inr :■■■:: 


bbb' —sbb :: hi 1 :: 


b : : bb bbb : bbb : 


■■PPI :■■■: :: :pbbbpz 


p m in ■■■ 


■pppbbb:::-:pbbb :: a 


BOB BBB : : EBB II IP! 


pppbbbp' phi: : . bb 


bbb :: bb : : bbb n n bb 


:ppbbb: :. .: bbb : :: bbb 


bbb: : ■ppi hhh ii :: ini 


bbb : in ' bbb : 


BB 11 11 ■ BBB I . flfll 


bbb::::: hi mi 


■ppphbppbbbpp: ■■■:: 


BB II 'BBB 1 11 'BBB IPP 


PPI bbbpbbbp: : :■■■ n 


■: 'ppbbbp: :pbbbpppb 


ppbbb: :bbbpppbbbpppb 


[PPI 'BBB :ppbbbpppbb 


mi: bb : in : be 


in :bbbpppbbbpppbbb 


■BBPPPBZPPBBBu': III 


IPBBBPPPBBBPPPBBHP 



Fig. 21, illustrates a plaid block pattern, composed of 
common six-harness twills, all of which run in the same 
direction. This design produced in all one color, and kind 
of yarn, will show up the plaid effect to a good advantage. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 77 

owing to the sharp cut-off in the twills. In this manner 
any evenly balanced twill may be arranged and carried out 
to any size required. 

Fig. 21. 

BBpnBBBBPBBBBPBPBPBnBnBrBPPPBBBPPnBBBPPPPPBPPPPn 
ucr«MHnnn»MHc:cHLiM: bpbbbbbppbbbpppbbbbbbbbbe ■■■*■ 
bpbbbpppbbbpbpbpbpbpbbbbbpbbbi n ■::■■■::■□□: rcanx 
ilbbb:t.:lbbb: :::::'■ a: b: b: b: b ■■■ ' : bdi iiibi deiii 

■■■. : : :■■■ ;: "■• ■::■: :■ ■:.:■: BBBLincBBBcnnacmL:: bpcd 



nappnaaBP 

BBBPP 



PPPBBBLXUBBB'. 



■;:b: :b::b bpbi b ■ bp:::lbbbpppbpbbbbblbbbbb 
bib bdbubpbpb ■ ppbbbb: t.bbb:.!:: ppbbpppb 



awnnriBi 
dbbbdppbbb I :. n ■ :■ m :■ 

bwbpppbpbpb: a: ■ b 



BBB. r BBBBBLBEBBB 



ihq ■■& b: :: :. lb::: 

IB. ' BBB :. BBBBB: BBBBfl 

ipppbbbbp 'a pppcbi :PL_nrj 

bbpbbbpb_b! b:.:b::b bub: i:e» pniBBBBBPBPBPBrBPBPBPB 

pbbbpptppbpppbbb] ::: an:: ?Ba ebbbpbebppi aaaoni ■■ 



in : : in : : bbb 
iii:::::iii: : .: bbb: p~bbbp 



□□a" b n bbbbb._p:: 

b b: :b: :b : :ppi_ be: 

rca: a: :: bbbbbcbbbdlj. bbb:.:: :: .bbb: :p: mr m riiica 

bbbpbbb i bppbbbpppbbbpppbbi o bbbgc: bbb: in pbbbit 

□bljBlb: b:b: b: b:t bib : ;: ~bbb 

b^bopi b::b 



■mi 

buubppbpbpbi 

BBBBB ' 



icl:: iiB;::riii::n:ni: ::t:ih. .::: bb 

■■■ :: :■■■::::: ebb : ■■■ l bbb 

*• bbb: :: ■■■ ■■■ :: :: iib r: ■■■: 

III Bll BBB :. Ill Ell 

upbbbcb: iiiLinii :~ :iiin:rii«:::: bbb: :::: :mnrn 
pbpbpbpbbbpbbbi a: i::i:.:ir:i::i:::::.:iiin:: ■■■ ■ acaraDB 
bpppbbbpppbbbp:::: :: m r j.z:i:z:: bglt bbbllli: iiilii bpbpb™ 
cnnm :::: :■■■ ■■■■■ iiiii n bbblmlt BBBrxBLBracBnan 
BnBBBnunBBBnBccnrji'BDDUn; BrBBBCiirBBBiB: bgbcbi :bpbp 
: bbb bbb:::: iiiii iiiii bbb iei i b::b: inn 

BBBPPrBBBBPPBBPPPBBninLi : iiinnrni: .: :: bbb b b b~ 

PBBPPBBB! IPPBPBBBBBPBBBBBPBPPPBBBPCl iBI IB: BPBI !BI IB; B 

b ibbbpphbbb:::: ;B::n:::; ■: •: :rin::;i:r:iii:.:i: :■: il-kiu 

dubbbb::: hi iiiii eiiii iri :: ■■■ : b~b: b: u ■ : 

bpbbbpp bbb b ppi i ■ . i: in: :rnii b. b b: b bcbp 

hi iie i iiiiiiiiii: iei ibe i e b: b::bi_ 

bbb' l in . :"b::::t: vb:.:::: :::'iiinr:riii:r::i: BCB^BrBCBP 
eilei i i i e el e e bee bgb i: ii ii i i ■[ i 

b'^b mpbbppbpbppbbbbpppbbbpbcb bpp ppbppi bbbi..ppbb 
pbbpbb: bbbbb~~: bbbpppbbbp: :b: bppbbbbbbpcbbbi ::::bbb 

BBB I I IBI BBB fl H B B ~[ : 1 EBB:' ! EBi:: 

ppblib: :: bbbbb: idi: ::: ibb: .r: : b b: .: iicii cia ebb t 
b. b: b ■ : : in :: ibb r:i icb b: .l:::;.:; bbbpppbbbubp 

cbcb' b: ■ :■:;■: ■: :::rin: n m: ml blbi bbbcbcbpp: bbbl deb 
b: :: i::~B~B:":BPBPP:"BBBCPr bbb-ppttb ar bebop] bbb: _ ppi ~ 



:nn»in:'riiiniiBiir 
u ■ ■ in hi i □ i 
i izb: :: bib: :: :: bib: :: iibbb' 

MOB BPBBBPCCBBB TjrBPPnPPI 



:bpbpl:p"bbbpppbbb 

I I B~BBBPPrBBBB 

b b: •• bbbpeobbbop 

IBOBt IBBBPTlPBBBPPn 



Fig. 21, illustrates a six-harness twill and basket-rib 
combination, which is a novelty and should be thoroughly 
studied, as there are some good points to be gained from it. 
Notice how the cotton stitch or plain texture is used to pro- 
duce a proper cut-off throughout the design; also how the 
the two long twills join with others at the repeating of the 
pattern, as well as how the twills join on the basket-ribs. 
There is not an excess number of risers, or sinkers, in any 
one place throughout the design. 

Fig. 22, illustrates another style of basket rib combined 
with a creased stripe and twill. The two warp threads that 
weave side and side, on the back, which read three down 



78 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

and one up, make a perpendicular line or crease after the 
style of a tricot weave; and produces a handsome effect in 
combination with other weaves. It will be seen, at the cut- 
off of the twill where the different characters are inserted, 
that there are five risers in succession, the filling way, and 
that to all appearances this would cause a float on the back 
or a miss-pick effect on the face of the goods; but owing to 
the middle thread, as shown by the different characters, be- 
ing thrown to the back of the goods in the process of weav- 
ing, it does away with this bad effect — as appears. 

Fig. 22. 

nnaa a :■ : r a :;_:■■■ '; : ■ ■■ ; ■ : ;■■■ warn : :::■:::■!! 



::::■:■ n ■ :;m;;i:iii ;. . an b ::.:::■■■ ;:n:. ii 

m im ■■■ : : ':■■■:■ :.:■■■ :::■■■ unana 



b ; ■ i mi a in Bin :::■ ■ ■■■ ■■■ i 

niiiDiQiDMnjin oai ; in ■ :::■■♦■■::::: :nBB^n«n 

nnaziB :b .:b.::.jbbb: ! .b :bib : : :::■■■ a :iaa i as bbb 

Baa a a :■: : a : .bbb ■■■ ■ :. bbb bbb iix !■□■□□ 

;:■<:■ a a aaa a : :bbb bbb : :b bbb bbb ; 

in :b a :■; : :a : :aa9 : : bbb : a : aaa : l:bbb :. . a 

: a i: a .a a bbb : a bbb :: .: aaa : :■ b : :: bjb ana 

aaa aaa a : bbb :: bbb a bbb bb : flflfl fl . 

lb bbb . flflfl a :;■::■::■ :■■■ :::■:;::■■■' :::;:;■■♦■■□ 

aaa flu '■ :::■■■■:■ :■.::; a bib hi : ■ ■ : 

I :. :■ bbb i aaa h .a a ■ ::■■■ :■'::,;■".■■■:; " 



■ aa a : aaa ; ;a' a :■: .a: ; ■■■nan: jBMnntMan 

■ aaa i: :; an :. ■ :: : □ a bbbb :. a . a, :: ■■■' bob 

aas : : bib MJnmmm: :■: :■: :■: . :■ : :■■♦■■; jn; :■■■ :nan 

nnajaia :: : bbb a a .ana ' bbb b bhb: : ■■::■■■ 

■ aa :; ;. bbb a : ■■■ ■ a a " a :: :■■■ :. :■■■: :: : ■':■:":. ; 

I :■ ::■■■:!: aaan :■ a ■ a ibb ■ bbi bbb 

bbb . : bbb ■; a : ebb b b :■: :: ■ : bbb :. :: .aaa .: :: :nan 

B BBB BBB B .B B B BBB I B BBB : BBB 

bbb a bbb .::■::■'■ :■. :bbb :bh: :::.■■■ .ann 



Fig. 23, illustrates another style of combination, with 
the crease weave used to divide the diagonal and rib figures. 
This style is quite often used in patterns for trouserings. 
The diagonal stripe should, however, be carried out some- 
what wider than the basket-rib stripe. 

Fig. 23. 

■■nnBBjnnMBnnBBnnBBMnBnBnMnBn«nHnMnBn«nB^:«nBnBBBn 

bbbbb b bbbbb a aaa B ■*:■::■::■::■:■::■! :b a:: a : : 

□■■n '■■ :■■: : ■■ ::::«bbb a a :a: :a a a a a :■::■: :an: :■■■ 

a bbbbb b :■■■■■ -; : a a □ a '■' :■: :■:::.;■' b '■: :■ h ■ nan 

bb : bb .::■■':: bbbbb a a :■: a ■ ■:■::■ b ■::■:■ bbb 

■ bbbbb b ■■■■■ b: :' 'a :b:"b' :b' :a :b :a :b .b: :a ■: :■ . a::n 
■ :: bb :: bb: : bb :: a bbbb. :■: b :b: ■::■::■: :■: :■: :■ a ■ :: :■■■ 
■rw :■■■■■.■::■■■■:■::■: 'b a ■::■::■■::■ :■ ■':■■■::: :an 
■a bb bb bb : aaa :■: :■•■ a a :■::■:;■ .a: a a b bbb 
■a a bbbbb a bbb a :■ b :a ■ m:im: !■: :■::■:]■''■':■::: :■□□ 

■ ■ as '. :■■ :: bb hbqc a a :a :a :■: :a a a b :b ■ :: :■■■ 
■■■na: :■■■■■' ■. :■■::■ :o: :a .a : :■: a □ a: :: :a. :b: b a a :b:t :b:j 
nnaa:..;: :aa: : aa: : bbbbb a a :e: :■: wnananai ;■: :a a: :a: bib 
■■■■::&':■■■■■: :■:■:■: :: 'a: :■: :a :■ :■::■: ■ ■ :■: :a: a: a : a :: 
■ :: an : :aa ■■ : b nnaa :■ :■: a :■: ■ :■::■: ;■: :■: ■ a bbb 
BBaaBn«nMBHHBnMnnn«nnBnBnBnBnBnBHnBnBLwnBnBBnnBn 

Fig. 24, illustrates a diamond pattern composed from 
what appears to be two different diagonals, but it is really 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 7!) 

only one or the same weave, transposed. It will be seen, 
that the upper left and lower right-hand corners are formed 
by the same sixteen-harness diagonal, and that there are 
nine risers and seven sinkers on each thread, both ways of 
the weave: while the upper right and lower left-hand cor- 
ners are formed in a similar manner, but with the weave 
transposed so that each thread has nine sinkers and seven 
risers. This transposition is necessary in order to make a 
perfect cut-off. Weaves not equally balanced in risers and 
sinkers, are generally arranged in this manner when united 
to form diamond patterns. 

Fig. 24. 

■ppbbbpbbbbppppbpbbbbppppbpppbbp 
-'■■■ ■■■b r pbbppbbmm pct ■gOngi 
pbbbpbbbbppppbbpb:t;bbbbppppbpppb; 
bbbpbbbbgpppbbp: 'bbppbbbbppppbppp 
bbpbbbb: :pgpbbp::b; .bbppbbbbppppbpp 
■□■■■■□□dcbb; .: imnnifiSnMmlnnGagn 
pbbbbppppbbppbbbpppbbppbbbbppppb 
bbbbppppbbppbbbpb: :DnM~ciMiiinnn 
BBBPPPPBBPPBBBPBpBPnnBBPPBBBBPPP 
bbppppbbppbbb; .bb: ■; bp: :: :bb: t:bbbbpp 
bppppbbppbbbpbbbpp: mna .bbppbbbbp 
ppppbbp^bbbpbbbb-pppbpppbbppbbbb 
pppbbepbbbpbbbbpbp; :: pbpppbbppbbb 
ppbbppbbbpbbbbp: bb::: d wannMnawi 
pbbppbbbpbbbbppcbbbppppbpppbbppb 
bbppbbb: .bbbbppppbbbb: pppbpppbbpp 
ppbbpppbppppbbbbppppbbbbpbbbppbb 
bppbbpppbpi :ppbbbpppbbbb: ;bbbppbbp 
bbppbb i :: ■ :pppbb: :pbbbbpbbbppbbpp 
bbbppbbppf lUBn npBDBBBMnB BM .pbbppp 
bbbbppbbpp: .is":. : bbbb: :bbbpphbpppp 

PBBBBPPBBPPPBPPPBBBGBBBPrBBEIPPPB 
ppbbbbppbbp: :: 'BPPBB^BBBPPBBPPPPBB 
pppbbbbppbbpppbpbpbbbppbbppppbbb 
ppppbbbbppbbpppbpbhb: ipbbpi " :pbbbb 
bpp: :: :bbbbppbbpp: :bhbppbbppppbbbbp 
pbppppbbbbppbbppbbppbbppppbbbbpb 
ppbppppbbbbppbbpbppbbppppbbbbpbb 
pppbppppbbbbppbbppbbppppbbbbpbbb 
bpppbppppbbbbppbpbbppppbbbbpbbbp 

BBnPPBPPnPBBBBPPBB:.:P[lPBBBBPBBBPn 
PBBPPPBPPPPBBBBPBPPPPBBBBPBBBPPB 

We will now call the reader's attention to Fig. 25, 
which illustrates the first three bars or picks of a fancy 
diagonal, composed in the following manner: 

5 6 7 

PPBB PPPBBB PPPPBBBB 

' HB. ' P QBH : PPPBBBBP 

■BPE PBBBPP PPBBBBPE 

1PPH HBBPPP O 



BB' ti B BBBBPPPf 

-PPPBB BBBPPPPB 

■BPPPPB1 

*SnBBr~ 



Fig. 25. 

ppbbppbbppbbppbbppbbppbb 

bbb: :::: :bbb: : ': bbb hi 

Bp ppb bbbppp: .bbbb: .ltppbbbb 



In connection herewith, we illustrate a four, six and an 



80 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

eight-harness twill, numbered 5, G and 7, respectively. Now 
observe that the first bar of Fig. 25, is the same as that of 
weave 5; the second bar is the same as the first of weave 6; 
and the third bar is the same as the first of weave 7; each 
instance the bars being carried out to twenty-four threads 
or harnesses in width. Now to complete the figure, con- 
tinue thus: take the second bar of each weave, in their res- 
pective order, and set them in the same order under those 
of the figure; then take up the third bar of each weave, 
then the fourth, etc. ; continue setting them under those in 
the figure until it is seventy-two bars in length. This will 
complete the figure and give us a large, fancy diagonal. In 
this operation, weave 5 had to be repeated six times; weave 
6, four times; and weave 7, three times, both ways, before 
all three weaves would repeat at the same point as started 
on. Hence, it will be seen that, in combining two or more 
weaves of different sizes, into continuous diagonals, they 
must each be carried out to that point where they will 
repeat at the same time or place of starting. On this prin- 
ciple of composing diagonals, many beautiful and compli- 
cated patterns are made for worsted fabrics; in fact, there 
is no limit to them. 

We might continue this subject, and illustrate many 
other combinations if we deemed it necessary, but we be- 
lieve a sufficient number and variety have been given, to 
enable the beginner to form a good idea in this branch of 
designing, so that by a little study and practice, he will be 
able to comprehend its scope, as set forth in the first para- 
graph. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 81 



CHAPTER XIV. 

THE ANALYSIS OF DOUBLE WEAVES — THEIR CONSTRUCTION 
AND STITCHING. 

This is a subject requiring- much study and practice in 
weaving, as it were, on paper; in other words, the uniting 
of weaves in various ways to learn the result or effect. To 
be able to answer the following questions, after inspecting 
or looking through a double weave, is a matter of no small 
importance to both the professional and amateur, in these 
days of modern competition in the profession. 

First. — What two weaves are used in the formation of 
this double weave? 

Second. — Which one of them weaves the face of the 
fabric, and which one the back? 

Third. — Are they properly stitched together? If so, by 
the face weave, back weave, or both? 

Fourth. — How are we to know that this double weave 
is correct in every respect, without trying the same in a 
pattern loom? 

The practical designer ought to be able to answer these 
questions promptly and correctly, after looking the double 
weave through. We are sorry to say, however, from per- 
sonal observations, we know there are those who profess to 
have this power, that are more or less deficient in the mat- 
ter. It is for the benefit of those professed designers, and 
particularly beginners, that this chapter is intended. 

To begin the subject, we will take for illustration, 
Fig. 1, which represents a double weave composed of the 

11 



82 



THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 



regular eight-harness twill — four up and four down — for 

the face: and the regular four-harness twill— two up and 

two down — for the back. These weaves are tied or stitched 

together by the back filling threads; in other words, it is 

called a "filling tie," that is to say, the back filling threads 

are brought up into the face of the fabric, by passing over 

certain face threads of the warp, one at a time in regular 

order. It will be observed, on looking at this double weave 

(Fig. 1), that we have numbered the bars or filling threads 

at the left from 1 to 16, in rotation; also that the harnesses 

or warp threads are numbered at the bottom from 1 to 16, in 

rotation. 

Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. 

-■' ■ ■■■■ ■ :■■■■ s ni ■ ■ ■ ■ : :: '■■■■an 

3 nannfi"B"SnBnn"nn •-.::::■ ■ ■ ■ □■■■■ana 

i '■■■■■ i hub :■:■■■ ■■■■:. xxn 

5 : •' ■ ■ ■ ■ ' • ■ 9 ■□■□■rx annncMn ■■■::□□□■ 

6 ■■■■« ■ ■■■■■xon liBnanxracnnnriBaBin ■■nnnnMB 

: ■ ■ •■' ■ ' xxjnnacn •-■ ■■:■:: bduxebbb 

8 ■■■;:■' ;■■■■■. ; »t ;bb lsnnnpnnnoBnBnBOBQ ocidlibbbb 

9 ■'■""■' II _.LjQUPn!rJBn -t;w4.aia^»(cc-i;wiri5 ^-Mot*Jtot-i:ii 

i"H a ■■■■■:: ' :■■■■ 
iib. :b •:_':; :n: :■: ib. 

1-9 BS3II I i IIHRU 

nuriz ' - :nuur.B :■□■□ 
iiasBaa . : :H«HBB;-;Bn 
wnnrjiinnn' -BnanBaBa 
^■■■□^■■■■■nBnBg 

We will now analyze this weave for the purpose of 
demonstrating its construction, as well as to see if the 
above remarks prove true. To do this, proceed as follows: 
Take the bars, or face filling threads, numbered 1, 3, o, 7, 
9, 11, 13 and 15, and set them down under each other, in 
their numeral order, the result is Fig. 2. From this figure, 
take the harnesses, or face warp threads, numbered 1, 3, 5, 
7, 9, 11, 13 and 15, and set them down along side of each 
other, in their numeral order, the result is Fig. 3, which is 
the eight-harness twill, and face weave. 

Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. 

- ■ iaam ■ ■■■■ ■■ (=■ ■ ■■■■■■ 

i ■■■■■■ ■■■■■ □■■□lMBQ ■■■■■■■ 

ii3iB i iBiii ■■:-::■■": ■■■■■■■-.- 

* ■■■: ■::■■■■■ ■■ ■ .:■■:::■ ■■■■■■ ■ 

!"■!:■: :■■■■■: : ■• ■■■■ : : ■■ : :■■ ■■■■■ ■■ 

r-v; ;■■■■■:_: ::■■■■■: c«innBHn ■■■■ ■■■ 

i isibi : iiiiH i ii bi ■■■ ■■■■ 

^■■■□♦□■■■■■□■□■■i ■pHmbodh ■■.■■■■■ 

Now take the bars, or back filling threads, numbered 
2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16, and set them down under each 



TEXTILE DESIGNING, 83 

other, in their numeral order, the result is Fig, 4. From 
this figure take the harnesses, or back warp threads, num- 
bered 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16, and set them down along 
side of each other, in their numeral order, the result is 
Fig. 5, which is the four-harness twill, and back weave; 
also the harnesses, or face warp threads, numbered 1, 3, -5, 
7, 9, 11, 13 and 15, and set them down along side of each 
other, in their numeral order, the result is Fig. 6, which 
illustrates the method or plan of tying. 

If a '"warp tie" is desired, that is to say, the back warp 
threads are brought up into the face of the fabric, passing 
over the face filling threads, one at a time in succession, 
the weave would then be as shown in Fig. 7. 

Fig. 7. Fig. 8. 

i ppppppb^bpbpbppp 
a ppppb»bpbpbppppp 
5 ppb*bpbpbppppppp 
7 b>bpbpbppppppppp 

-■> ■' :■ ■-;: nn: :: ;: .■♦ 
hbpbppp: .::.. : : b*bp 
isbpppppppppb I BPBP 

15PPPPPPPP»*IIPIIP«P 



i PPPPPl 


ll#IDIt 


a 


:pp 


2 BPBPBBBBBPBPB 


3 ppppb*bpbpb: 


:ppgp 


4 iniimnii mi 


5 ppb*b: 


■ d :r: 




: :p 


6 ■■■■■: 


■ isiia 


:bp 


7 ■♦■PBPMi 


3P~ 


:; :p 


8 ■■■::■: 


■ IIBB 


ana 



s luiLiinanunanriLi'* 
ww m r1bbb i b9si 

«bpb. .: :pppp: ~p:;b»bp 
i-d salsa i imag 
jshppppp: ip :::■♦■ bp 
mbbbbb r bbebb ■ : 

isppppp .1PB*BPBPBP 
' ' I D BBBI9 a SI 

t os -^ od so c i-**o oo a- en as 



Fig. 9. Fig. 10. 

ppp^pppp 2 bpbpbbbbbpbpbbbb 

PP'*PPPPP IB ■■HIS B CBflbB 

Ptpppppp •; bbbbb ■ iciri :bp 

#PPPPPPP 8 Bflfl I BBBBB B IB 

PPPPPPP* 10BPBI ■■■■■■[■■■■ 

pppppp<t'P vim :bbbbbpbpbbbbbp 

PPPPP*PP I BBBBB B BBBBB BP 

PPPP>PPP 16BBBPBPBBBBBPBPBB 

fcS*k.OSGOOt>3**OS l- , WCOttfcOiCft--4Qrj | »0^'t3«cXSi01 

By analyzing Fig. 7, the same as just demonstrated 
with Fig. 1, we find Fig. 8 — in place of Fig. 2, — which 
contains Fig. 3, and also Fig. 9 which illustrates the tying 
method. Then again, we find Fig. 10 — in place of Fig. 4, — 
which contains Fig. 5. 

If a "warp and filling tie" were desired, — bringing both 
of the above methods into operation at the same time — we 
would then have Fig. 11. From the analysis of this figure, 
we get Fig. 8, which contains Figs. 3 and 9; and again, we 
get Fig. 4, which contains Figs. 5 and 6. 



84 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

Now we will proceed to find and lay out this double ty- 
ing plan in its full and original form. To do this, we will 
take Fig. 11, and proceed as follows: 

Fig. 11. Fig. 12. 

i pppppp»#*pbp*ppp J SysyyySiyyyyyyyy 

■:■:. ■ ■■■■ ■::■■■■ \ ■■<,■»■■"■■■"■■ 

4 OnMMUUOU INIll i ; ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■* 

i Dul^lQini IDDDlljH -- ___♦_ _ , _ 

« ■■■■■: ■: IIBBB g «■■■■■■■■■■■■ ■ 

7 ■ ♦■ ;■: ■ ;; :; :::;nnnnn ' u* ^. .. .i -••_—_ • < ■ 

8 ■■■ ■ ■■■■■□<>□■■ 8 ■■■■■■■■■■■■ ■ ■■■ 
» mcb: '■: : :: \. .ppppp** » u, „.^nLi.i •L J _-.-w^ Lju i 
!<>■ ;■; ■■■■■ ; ; ■■■« <■■■■■■■■■■ ■ ■!!■■ 
nH' ;■;:;;■;;;:;; :: *; ■♦■ . n. .1 ...lPLLJ-.i .: .; . : i I ♦[.,.. 

19DIHHD : :■■■■■□ ^■■■■■■■« ■■■■■■■ 

i3innnnni;nnni>iDi] u ■ ■■■-.'-. -■- ♦ .,. .u 

>■■■■■■■■■■■ i ■■■■■■ ■■■■■■■■■ 
i: ■ ♦■:■ ■ ! ----- - ♦-__ ,__ 

16BBMn<>aHMBBB u M:_;BM »>■■■■■*. ■■■■■■■■■■■ 

Commencing with the first pick, which is a face thread, 
we set it down as all sinkers except where the tie comes on 
the eighth harness, we mark that as a riser; then taking 
the second pick, which is a back thread, we set it down as 
all risers except where the tie comes on the third harness, 
we mark that as a sinker; in this manner we continue with 
each of the sixteen filling threads in rotation, the result is 
Fig. 12 which shows the whole tying plan, full size, both 
filling and warp methods. 

Fig. 13. Fig. 14. 

i ppppppp#pppppppp 2 ■■ : ■■■■■■■■■■■hi 

3 □pppp»ppnppppppp 1 ■■»■■ "■■ 

5 ppp#pppppppppppp '!■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ ■ 

7 p#ppppppdppppppp -■■■■■■■■■■■■ ■■■ 

9 ppppppppppppppp# «" ■ ■■■■ 

npppppppnppppp#pp !-■■■■■■■■ ■■■■■■■ 

wppppppppppptoppp !>■■■■■■ ihbibibi 

]5PPPPPPPPP'tPPPPPP !«■■■■ ■■■■■■■■■■■ 

From Fig. 12, we will take the bars 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 
and 15, and set them down under each other, in their nu- 
meral order, it will give us Fig. 13, from which we will 
take the harness numbers 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16, and set 
them down along side of each other, in their numeral order, 
we obtain Fig. 9. Now we will take the remaining bars 
or filling threads 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12. 14 and 16, and set them 
down under each other, in their numeral order, the result is 
Fig. 14, from which we will take the harness numbers 1, 3, 
5, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15, and set them down along side of each 
other, in their numeral order, we obtain Fig. 6. By these 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. X, r > 

figures it will be seen, that each demonstration has proved 
itself true in every point. 

Fig. 15, illustrates the two original Fig. 15. 

weaves, Figs. 3 and 5 combined, but not S^ n,nm,CI 



, . j , T p nnnnaua: ana 'nunc: 

tied together. It we were to set a loom ■raaaaananaaaaan 

in operation, containing a warp drawn ■■■■■; ;■ ;;aaaaaca:n 

in straight across sixteen harnesses, JB5nanrrnn^S*-r5r 

with the harness chain built thus, the ■§ iP"n""c*E5*5" 

result would be two separate pieces of LiiS^s""^ 



cloth, but united at the selvage only. ■■■H«Fm5S2-S^l 

The analysis of any double weave 
may be conducted on the principle already described, and 
should there be any mistakes in either of the component 
weaves, or tying plans, such mistakes can be easily detected 
by the deficiency or excess of risers, or sinkers, as the case 
may be, which can be rectified on paper before building the 
loom chain; thus saving time, trouble and annoyance of 
finding such mistakes in the cloth, after the loom has been 
put in operation. 

Should the reader fail to comprehend our meaning, we 
would advise the following: Take a sheet of design paper, 
on it copy off all the above figures in their numeral order, 
at the same time carefully read the directions which accom- 
pany them; in this manner the reader will more readily un- 
derstand our meaning — it will all seem to come to him, as 
it were, at once. 

To assist the beginner further in this important branch 
of designing, we will illustrate some of the most practical 
double weaves in use at the present day, and the different 
methods of stitching or tying them together. 

Fig. 16. Fig. 17. Fig. 18. Fig. 19. 

nnnnanan mnn»#«n nnan«#MQ nnnnanan 

oniMiin ■-■■■■■.: bhrbis onaaaaan 

nnatra;::nn mm*u nna*annn jom^uann 

■■■■■ ■■■■■nan ■■■■anon ■■■■■nan 

anannnnn ■♦■njnnn ■♦■nnnnn anannnnn 

■■■n- cm aaanarjaa ■■■: r» aaan'-naa 

■nnnnnan annnnna^ a n:::.i.:a» anunnna* 

a: : : ■■■■ a. a ■■■■ a : ; ;aaaa ananaaaa 

H-tow^c^as-^Qo f-»fcOOOt*^cnos<ioo i-'baoo^cnosMGo h- to cc *. i-» c: ^-i oc 

Figs. 16, 17, 18 and 19, represents the regular four-har- 
ness cassimere twill, both the face and back weave. Fig. 16 



SG 



THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR. 



shows the filling tie; Fig. 17, shows the warp tie; Fig. 18. 
shows both warp and filling ties; and Fig. 19, shows a 
broken warp and filling tie. 



Fig. 20. 



□ 



bpppppppap 

AAAPOPA; ■■■■ 

ppppp: :■ ■ ma 
m : ■;■■■■■■ 

ppupapm. :■ :pp 
:-papaaaaaaap 
ppapapappp„;p 
apaaabaaap<>p 
■ ■ ■ ;: 
■■■■■■■ : ■ : 
ipapppppppap 
" iaonBni|M 



Fig. 21. 

■pppppppa: 

■ ■■: a a b: 
:i _ia: :ar:m .■• 

■ ■ ■::■■■! 

ppppa ■♦■. 
■papaaaaai 
ppapa*app: 
■■■■■■■■ 

■ b»appppe 

IA fl 



■■a 

i.ip 

!AP 

j. .p 



Miiw^iTr.-iic :c c — ti 



Fig. 22. 

■pppppppapa* 
mam. i >pbpaaaa 
ppppppapa»ap 
■P-->: :■::■■■■■■ 
■ ■♦■ 
;.;■:;■■■■■■■ : 

PPAPA^APPPPP 
■□■■■BAAATKC 
APA^APPPPPAP 
BBISBB3 : :■ 

■ ♦■ ;ppppppap 
" in<on«nBB 

i3i<IQOvCO-iJ 



Fig. 23. 

■pppppppapap 

baapapapaaab 

□nnwpB#M : 

■ : :■: laain 

:::.•.■ :■: :■ . 

BPBPAAAAAAAP 
PPAPA»APPPPP 
B B3IIBBB ■ 

*a«n«a tnnnnn 
aaaabaa ■":■ : 



Figs. 20, 21, 22 and 23, represents the regular six-harness 

twill, both face and back. Fig. 20, shows the filling tie: 

Fig. 21, shows the warp tie; Fig. 22, shows both warp and 

filling ties; and Fig. 23, shows a broken warp and filling tie. 

Fig. 24. Fig. 25. 



BPPPPPPPPPBPBPBP 

■ ■bbb : : :■: 'a ■■■■ 
. : ■_:■: :■: ;bp 

■■■'.: •: :■: :■ .■■■■■■ 

B B B ■ 

■: : ■ :■' aniisBii 

b :■ :■ h ; 
:■ b Eigmigas 

ppbpa' a '■:: o , ; :p 
bpb bbbbbbbbb ; 

bpbpa:ja:p 

BPflflflflflflBBB' ! B 

■I IB ■ : pbp 

bb91bbbbb ; ; ':■' ibp 
■□■: ippppppppbpbp 
bbbbbbbpopbpbpbb 



bppp: ii ' □□ b :■: :■♦ 
bbbbb b b b bbbi 

fl B .■♦■P 
BBB B B B BBBBHB 

pppp: :. b b bob :: ;p 
B a [Ml .a bbbbbbbb 

□ fl b n*a 
a a :■ flflflflaxnafl : 

P3BPbpb»bppp: :: . o 

BPBPAAAAAAAAAPAP 

apapa»apppp. : 

■ BI51BBBBB B fl ' 



■ ♦API 1PPPPPPPBPI 
" " IPBPBPBPI 



'1 OS <I QO CO C h 



Fig. 26. 



Fig. 27. 



BPPPPPPPPPBPBPB* 

■■■■■ : . ' :■;:■: :■■■■ 

fl ■ B»B 

BBBPOPBPBPAAAAAB 

: b 'fl. :■*■ 

■ ■ :■: BflflBflflflfl 
ppppflPfl- w#Bpn 

BBEflBBBBBBB 

PPBPflPfl ♦ MPPPPPPP 

■Pflpflflflflflflflflfl ; i 

mam :b»bppppppppp 

fl BBBBBBBBB ' 'flP 

bpb#bi ii pppp: ::: ■ : 

■ BBBBBBBB ! fl. 'fl' i 
■♦■ PBPMP 
BBBBBBBP<>PB;_;BPBB 
h^tooot^cno&<iaocooi-*fcoco^cnaa 



bpopppppppbpbpbp 

flflflflfl' :■: B fl BBBB 

ppppppppbpbpb ♦ ma 

BBB : B B ■■■■■■ 

■ :bpb m :pp 

■ BBB BBBBBBBB 

pp: :.:m. mpa*b : : 

A 'A' AAAAAAAAAP 
PPAPA BUBDJ : . 

a: ■ BBBBflBBBfl ■: : 



:ap 
a : 



HPAAAAAflflfl 

apbpa: 

aaaaaaaaa. 1 

b*b a: :■: : 

AAAAAAAPvPBPA^AA 

H l b300>UOiO&<IOC c c »- i; W 4. ^t 35 



Figs. 24, 25, 26 and 27, represents the regular eight- 
harness twill, both face and back. Fig. 24, shows the filling 
tie; Fig. 25, shows the warp tie; Fig. 26, shows both warp 
and filling ties; and Fig. 27, shows a broken warp and 
filling tie. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 87 

Iii originating these double weaves, we placed each 
single weave in such a position that the twills were made to 
come directly over and under each other as near as possible. 
This is a point which should be adhered to, so far as pos- 
sible, in the formation of all such weaves, as it makes it 
much more convenient for tying them together in a proper 
manner. 

Fig. 28. Fig. 29. Fig. 30. 

□□□ntME«4> *#nn innnwnMa innm 11 1 1 n in^wpwnwn 

DEB ■ ■■ EID1III I B IIIDBBIII 19 ■ B 

□□■□■♦nn nrr.: yr:wu a* n;.- ::::::;:::..■; :■:,:■□■♦ 

I B 1BII EBBBEJ H » I] E1ERGIB 1 1 I IR 

■□■♦□□::□ m cr:*~Mr.**na □nann#*aBDMPBnnn 

B BBBBE3 IBB ID E£ia BBBBB B B H BBBB 

■♦nrxrara :ra«D«n«#Enna □□aaMl*n*nB#nann 

ICma I B B B SHBEBB BBB B B I 11IBB1 

^k.»*o.»<.<» MaMD«#nnnnna c*m b'b::b:- 

B B EBBBDBB B B :B B BBSESBBEB 

Mnw#nao r 'nun ■: mnmam4>i innnnunn 

B IBBBBBB B fl B B BBBEBBBBB 

B B BBOBBBBBH R ' 

■n«*n: : x:r:: :: :::b:zbu 

B BBBBHBBBJBBBB 

Figs. 28, 29 and 30, are respectively the above three 
twills (four, six. and eight-harness), and will weave the 
same fabrics as those ; but in originating these latter figures 
the single weaves were combined from a different point or 
position, hence the difference in their appearance. The ob- 
ject of these figures is to demonstrate that, there is a right 
and wrong way of putting together two single weaves for 
the purpose of producing a double weave; not because it 
makes any difference in the weaving or appearance of the 
fabric, but that it does make a great difference in the man- 
ner of stitching them together. In the former sets of fig- 
ures it will be observed how systematic the stitching is ac- 
complished, and, in accordance with rules previously laid 
down; while in this latter set there is no such system to fol- 
low. In the former, each place of stitching is completely 
surrounded by either sinkers, or risers; in the latter, it takes 
both sinkers and risers to surround each stitch or tie — tie 
where you will, the result will be the same. 

Figs. 31 and 32, represents a double-pick face (two and 
"two, warp and filling) with a cassimere-twill back, show- 
ing two methods of tying. 

Figs. 33 and 34, represents a six-harness basket face 



88 



THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 



(three and three, warp and filling) with a six-harness twill 
back, showing two methods of tying. 
Fig. 31. Fig. 32. Fig. 33. Fig. 34. 



HOCHBHB* 


ppppbpbp 


ppppppbpbpb* 


ppppppbpbpbp 


bpbpbbbb 


■' :• : :■■■■ 


■ ■■ '■ :■: :■■■■ 


«■■■■■■■■ 


ppppb*b : 


ncr :pb*bp 


:::.:■;: ■: ■♦■: : 


■ :■«■ 


■ BIBBB 


a ■■■■■ 


bpb. ■:■■■■■■ 


BPOPBPBBBBBB 


■rwtnnnn 


bhbppppp 


-npppp»*-«PBP 


pppp: ricinia 


■■■■■"■□ 


■■■■■□■■>□ 


■: :■ ■■■■■■■ : 


BPBPBBBBBBBP 


■♦bppjpl 


■♦bppppp 


bpbpb*-pppppp 


BPBDB ♦■□□□□□□ 


BBBPBPBB 


■■■PBPBB 


aniimiiDiu 


■PBBBBflBflDOn 




M-»S03pU-0»O<1Q0 


■ ■♦■m innnr 


■: :b: ■; ;; '■ ; 








DINIH ■ ■ ! 






■♦■ ■ ipppppp 


b^bpbppppppp 






■ ■■■a m \mium 


»HiD-:ainH 



HM«Afia fc 10D»O'-W 



lOl'-IOC coo t- 4 to 



Figs. 35 and 36, represents an eight-harness basket face 
(four and four, warp and filling) with an eight-harness twill 
back, showing two methods of tying. — See Sample No. 5, 
made from Fig. 36. 

Fig. 35. Fig. 36. 



■ ■ ■ ■♦ 

BIB 3BI Mum '■■■■■■ 
3DBDBnB#Bn 

■ ■ ■ B BBBBBBBB 

BPBPB ■■■■■■■■■ : 

ipppdi a ■♦■ ;bpbd 

■ p siaibiiii a I 

a a a m* 

I HID '■ ■ 

b a a*n :: 
■■■■■■■hi a a a 

B !■#>■! [■□ 



tppppppbpbpbpbp 

bbbpopbpbpbmbbb 

a ■ ■»■:: 

5PBPBPBPBBBBBBBB 
a a a a i 

OPBPBPBBBBBBBBBP 
PPPPPPP; 1B#BPBP«P 

■PBPBBBBBBBBBPBn 



■ ♦bpb BP" 'pppnpp: : 

■■■■■:!■ 'flr iBPBBBB 



■ ■' a ■: ;: 


:pppp 




a 


■PBPB#Bnn □! 




■ ■■■■■■■■ IB! 


IB a 


a b e a :::: 




■■■■■■■: : ■: '■ 


:bpbb 


■ ♦■ bpbppp: 




eiiii a a a 


Bill 



)rCi-i*^4.;i- 






Fig. 37. represents a double-pick weave, both face and 
back. 

Fig. 38, represents a six-harness basket weave, both 
face and back. 

Fig. 39, represents an eight-harness basket weave, both 
face and back. 



Fig. 37. 

ppppbpbp 

■PBPBBBB 
DPnpB^BP 

■PBPBBBB 
■ BPP! " 

■■■■■ a . 

■♦■PPQUP 
IBP 



Fig. 38. 

ppppppbpbpb' ' 
a a a Banana 
PPPPPPBPBPBP 
a a ■■■■■■■ 

a a a 

B I Ifll '.BflflflBfl 

b"bpb»pppppc 
■■■■■■■~ib ■ : 
■pbpbp^ppppp 
i a a 

■♦BPBPPPP 

ipb a ' 



Fig. 39. 

PPPPPPPPBPBPB - B I 
BPBPBPBPflflflflBBBB 

□□pprnppBPBPB*B' ■ 
a a a a bni 

h a a a 

a a a a bbbbhbbb 
PPPPP*^rPB»B rl BPBP 
a a a a ■■■■■■■■ 

a a b a 

BBBBBBBBB B B B 

a ;b: :b»b~p 

BBflflflflflBflPBPBPBP 
BDBPBaBI : 
BBBBBBBBB B B B 
B»B B B 
■ 9BBBBBBB 1BOB! B 1 



If it should be desired to give these weaves a closer ty- 
ing, insert a stitch between the present ones in rotation. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 



Figs. 40, 41 and 42, represents respectively the same as 
the three preceding figures, but combined from a defferent 
standpoint, as described under Figs. 28, 29 and 30. Note 
the difference in tying. 
Fig. 40. Fig. 41. Fig. 42. 



ppppm#bp 


ppDPPEflrfl>flP 


ppppppptbpb ♦ ■■□■□ 


isiia q 


■ flflflflflfl H IB . 


■■■■■■■■■:.:■ b .an 


pppphpbp 


ppppppbpbpb! i 


ppppp: u n ■n*n*n*i i 


IIHII 1 


BQBB9BB IB 


BBBBBBBBB B BPHP 


■ ♦■□. ipnn 


ppppppbpmpbp 


nnnnnn:_:>BUB! .*p*p 


■ B IB9B 


BIBBBBB :■! 1 


BBBBBBBBB BB B ! 


■pbpppp'- 


■□■♦■: r:n: nn : : 


ppppppppbcbpbpbp 


■ □ ■ BBDB 


■ : ■ B. .BBBKBB 


BBBBBBBBB B [■□■□ 




■nBtEBCDcnjnna 


■nB'*Bi 'Ban! fappppp 




1 I fl B 


B H B B HBBBSBBB 




■pbpbppppppp 


■dbdb: ■ o .--ppppp 




B Bi B EflflBBH 


fl B fl B EBBBBBBB 




h- to w a* cji as -"i oo cc o i- 1 to 


■ PBriBPflpp- □! :pi r. !■♦' 
a :■: e b bbbbbbbb 

ini : b: :b :p: :ij; : :ppp 
■uflr:fl:-:flr:flflflflflflflfl 



Fig. 43, represents the regular, six-harness twill face 
with the three-harness (two up and one down), twill back. 

Fig. 44, represents the regular, six-harness twill face 
with the three-harness (two down and one up), twill back. 

Fig. 45, represents the regular, six-harness basket face 
with the three-harness (two up and one down), twill back. 

Fig. 4(3, represents the regular, six-harness basket face 
with the three-harness (two down and one up), twill back.. 
Fig. 43. Fig. 44. Fig. 45. Fig. 46. 



p 



■ppppppp 

HGBflflflflP 
PPPPPPBPB*BP 
BBQBB BBBBfl 

PPPBPBPBPPP 
BBB BBBBB BB 
PPHPB-»BPPPlP 
■Pflflflflfl ■■■■ 
BPBPBPPPPnpp 
BBBBB BBEBI 
■ ♦■PGU: iPI !PBP 
flflfl BBBBflflfl 

Htiwi.Oio:MQotDOMW 



■PPPPPPPMPBP 

mum bbb :bpbb 
pppppi ■■;:■■♦ bip 

B BBB B :BflBP 

ppppbpb: !»ppp 
bbb. b bbb: MP 
u. b; b*b i 

b b;.:bbbl_;bubb 
b b 'bppppppp 
bpbbbpbpbbbp 
■♦■pppppppbp 
bbbpbpbbbpbp 



PPPPPPBPBPBtP 

b bbbbb: bbbb 

prippP'f.BIPBI>BIP 
HB3BB 'BBBBB' i 

ppnpp; ;■; :bpbp 
bbb bbbbb bb 
*pbp*#ppcppp 

B BBBBB BBBB 

ininn ipppppp 

BBBBB BBBBB : 

B#BPB] '*.: .PPPPP 
BBB BBBBB BB 



PPPPPPHPBPBP 
B B BBB fl BB 

pppr.ppBiPfltBip 

B BBB fl BIB ' 

PPPPPPK'BPBin 
BBB B BBB fl 

■P*Pfl>PPPPPP 

■:;■:■■■:'■.&■ 

BOTCH "PPPPPP 

b: Bflfl' :■: '.flflfl'.j 
■♦■pbppppppp 

flflfl ■ BflB_'Bfl 



Only one method of tying has been illustrated in these 
last four figures, which we consider is sufficient owing to 
the close texture of the back weave; but should more tying 
be desired in some cases, increase the number of stitches as 
previously illustrated in the twill weaves. 

If it should be required to reverse the position of any 
one of these double weaves, Figs. 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 43, 
44, 45 and 46, that is, to throw the face weave to the back, 
and the back weave to the face, turn such figure one-fourth 
way round, either to the right or left, and build the loom 

12 



90 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

chain with the figure remaining in that position. This will 
turn the position of the weave so that the working of the 
tilling threads as now, will then represent the working of 
the warp threads; and the working of the warp threads as 
now, will then represent the working of the filling threads. 
We will now close this chapter, after illustrating the 
following: Figs. 47, 48, 49 and 50, represents four different 
movements for weaving two pieces of plain flannel, at the 
Fig. 47. Fig. 48. Fig. 49. Fig. 50. 



■□□□ 


■nnn 


umnn 


c«aa 


BHI 


□■□n 


■nan 


BB B 


ULIBn 


■■■a 


■■ :■ 


■ana 


■ aa 


■■. :■ 


■■■□ 


Baa 



same time, one above the other. Hence, each one of those 
weaves will produce the same result. It is on this principle 
that double-width flannels are woven in single-width looms. 



CHAPTER XV. 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF TRIPPLE OR THREE-PLY WEAVES. 

This is a class of weaves which are very little used in 
comparison with those of the single and double classes. 
Perhaps, if better understood by designers of fabrics for 
wearing apparel, this class of weaves would be brought in- 
to a more general use in the manufacture of certain heavy 
fabrics. 

Tripple or 3-ply weaves, are those having three weaves 
united into one in such a manner that but one fabric is 
produced, as it were, in the operation of weaving. Yet, in 
reality, this one fabric is composed of three fabrics tied 
or stitched together in such a manner, during the process of 
weaving, that they really represent but one fabric. 

The term "stuffed" is quite often used in preference to 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 91 

"tripple" or "3-ply," and quite appropriately too, as the prin- 
cipal object in using this class of weaves, is for adding 
weight or cheapness to the fabric by stuffing into its centre 
a cheaper grade, or another class of stock; the face and 
back fabrics completely covering from view the middle fab- 
ric. On this principle of weaving, a cotton fabric can be in- 
serted between two all-wool fabrics — the three being stitch- 
ed together as one, — so that no one could detect it without 
unravelling the same. This method of weaving is, there- 
fore, adapted to the manufacture of chinchillas, worsted 
cloakings, overcoatings, etc. 

In order to demonstrate this subject in a comprehensive 
manner, in the construction of the different illustrations or 
figures, it will be necessary for us to use the terms "face," 
"middle" and "back," a great many times in connection 
therewith; hence, we desire the reader to keep in mind, the 
following explanations: That these terms apply to the face 
weave, the middle weave and the back weave, and will be 
represented at the top, and at the side of these illustrations, 
by the figures 1, 2 and 3, respectively. That is to say, the 
figure 1, will represent the "face;" the figure 2, will repre- 
sent the "middle;" and the figure 3, will represent the 
"back." 

We will now illustrate the manner of laying out and 
constructing a tripple weave, to consist of the four-harness 
cassimere twill on both the face and back, and the two-har- 
ness cotton or plain weave in the middle. This manner of 
procedure, when once thoroughly understood, will enable 
the beginner to construct a tripple weave with any three 

(1) 12 3 12 3 12 3 12 3 

■□□■ i nnnnnnnnnnnn 

■■no 2 nnnnnnntnnnnn 

□■■□ , . 3 nnnnnnnnnnnn. 

nu.mn C 2 ) i nnnnnnnnnnnn 

■□■□ 2 nnnnnnnnnnnn 

uuum 3 nnnnnnnnnnnn 

■nan ,„>> i nnnnnnnnnnnn 

□■□■ (o; 2 □□□□□nnnnnnn 

■nn* 3 nnnnnnnnnnnn 

g«nn i nnnnnnnnnnnn 

2 nnnnnnnnnnnr~ 



□□■■ 3 nnnnnnnnnnnn 

single weaves he may choose to use. As will be seen, we 
have marked the weaves named above, (1, 2, 3,) and placed 



92 



THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 



them in the position that they are to occupy in the tripple 
weave. At the right of these weaves, we have illustrated 
what is to represent a piece of design paper, marked at the 
top and one side, 1, 2, 3, in succession. On this design 
paper, we will proceed to lay out and construct the tripple 
weave. In doing this work, it should be borne in mind that 
each single weave is to occupy the positions on the design 
paper in line of the figure which corresponds with that of 
the weave being laid out, and no other, both ways of the 



paper. 



Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2, 



123123123123 

i ■□□□□□□□□■en 

2 pppppppppppp 
s ppppuppppppp 
i ■□cmcd: n 

2 pppppppppppp 

3 □□□□□□□□ :: O : 
i pppmppbppppp 

2 pppppppppppp 

3 pppppppppppp 
i ppppp-bppbpp 

2 pppppppppppp 

3 pppppppppppp 



12 3 123123123 

i pppppppppppp 

2 phppcppbpppp 

3 pppppppppppp 
i pppppppppppp 

2 pi ppbpppppbp 

3 pppppppppppp 
i p 

2 pbppc :. ■ : 

3 pppppppppppp 
i pppppppppppp 

2 pi h ■ : unmn 

3 pppppppppppp 



Fig. 3. 

12 3 12 3 12 3 12 3 

1 PPPPPPPPPPPP 

2 PPPPPPPPPPPP 

3 PPBPPPPPPPPB 

1 PPPPPPPPPPPP 

2 PPPPPPPPPPPP 

3 ppBPPBPPnppr 
1 pppppppppppp 

2 PPPPPPPPPPPP 

3 PPPPPMPPBPPP 

i ppppppppuppp 

2 pppnpcpppppp 

3 PPPPPPPPMPPB 



Fig. 4. 



Fig. 5. 



12 3 12 3 12 3 12 3 

1 MPPPPPPPPBPP 

2 PMPPPPnMCPPP 

3 pppppppnpnpp 
i ■. . ■::.::; 

2 PPPPMPPPPPBP 

3 PPPPPPPPPPPP 
1 PPPMPPHPPC 

2 : :■ : upbpppp 

3PPPPPPPPPPCP 

1 PPPPPPMPPMX 

2 ppppmppc ;;:■ : 

3 pppppppppppp 



12 312 3123123 

1 bppppppppbpp 

2 pbpppppbpj: 

3 PuMPPPPPPPPB 

i MPP*nppppppp 

:; ■ ■; ;; :■ 
3 ppbppmpppl 

1 ppcbppmppppp 

2 pbppppphpi: 

3 pi pppbpphppp 
i Pi :■:::■:: 

2 PPPPMPPPPnBP 

3 PPPPPPPPMPPB 



Fig. 1, illustrates the face weave laid out in its respec- 
tive order. 

Fig. 2, illustrates the middle weave laid out in its res- 
pective order. 

Fig. 3, illustrates the back weave laid out in its respec- 
tive order. 

Fig. 4, illustrates the face and middle weaves combined 
in their respective order. 

Fig. 5, illustrates the face, middle and back weaves 
combined in their respective order. This figure, as it now 
stands, would weave a single fabric of a filling face, diago- 
nal appearance. Hence, another movement must be made 
that will separate these textures, and allow each one to 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 03 

work independent of the two others. In other words, when 
a filling- thread is woven into either the face, middle, or 
back fabric, the harnesses which weave that fabric must 
work independent of the others. This will be seen by ex- 
amining Figs. 6 and 7, particularly the latter one. 
Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. 

12312 3123123 123123 12 3123 123123123 123 

i bppppppppbpp i «ppppcppnBPP i ■♦pppppppbpp 

2 bbpbppbbpbpp 2 bbpbppbbpbpp 2 bmdbo ■■□■an 

3 ppbppppppppb 3 bbbbbpbbpbbb 3 bbbbbpbbpppp 
1 bppbpppppppp 1 bppbpppppppp 1 bppbpppppc 

2 bppbb^bppbbp 2 bppbbpbppbbp 2 bppbbpbppbbp 

3 ppbppbpppppp 3 ■■■■■■■■□■■n 3 bbbbbbbbpbbp 

1 pppbppbppppp 1 pppbppbppppp 1 pppbppbppppp 

2 bbpb: pbb: :bpp 2 ■■□■pi bbpbpp 2 bbpbppbbpbpp 

3 ppup: b i: bppp 3 ■■ iiickbib 3 bipibbiiih ; 

1 PPPPPPBPPBPP 1 PPPPPPB: 'PBPP 1 PPPPPPBPPBPP 

2 BPPBBPBPPBBP 2 BPPBBPBPPBBP 2 ■PPWPiElDWWt' 

3 PPPPPPPPBPPB 3 II II EBEIII 3 linilCHIUI 

Fig. 6, illustrates the movements of the face and middle 
textures completed and separated the filling way only. 

Fig. 7, illustrates the movements of all three textures 
completed and separated, both filling and warp ways. If a 
harness chain were built from this figure, and attached to 
a loom operating twelve harnesses with a warp drawn in 
straight across, it would produce three separate fabrics con- 
sisting of a cassimere twill on the top and bottom with a 
plain flannel in between them — the three pieces being united 
by the selvage only. Now let us look closer into the con- 
struction of this Fig. 7. Looking at it the filling way, we 
find that the face picks or bars 1, 1, 1, 1, remain the same 
as in the former figures, passing over all but two of the 
warp threads. The bars 2, 2, 2, 2, show an increase of four 
risers, all of which are marked over the face weave; thus 
forcing the filling to pass under all of the face warp threads 
and over all of the back warp threads, completely enclosing 
this filling between the face and back fabrics; or, in other 
words, allowing it to form a middle fabric independent of 
the two others. The bars 3, 3, 3, 3, show an increase of 
eight risers, all of which are marked over both the face and 
middle weaves; thus forcing the filling to pass under all but 
two of the warp threads, and they assist in weaving the 
back fabric. Looking at it the warp way, we find that the 
face warp works over all but two of the filling threads; the 



94 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

middle warp works the same both ways ; and the back warp 
works under all but two of the filling threads. 

Next in order, is the uniting or tying of these fabrics 
together in such a manner that, when put into operation, 
they will produce one combined fabric; in other words, the 
three single fabrics will be united, and appear as one. 

Fig. 8, illustrates the completed tripple weave, with the 
tying as just described. On examining into this principle 
of tying we find that, the first tie is made by raising a mid- 
dle warp thread so that a face filling thread passes under it ; 
the second tie, by raising a back warp thread so that a mid- 
dle filling thread passes under it; the third and fourth ties 
are made in the same manner respectively. The first and 
third ties, unites or binds the face to the middle weave, and 
the second and fourth ties, binds the back weave to the mid- 
dle; hence, it will be seen that, the middle weave is the 
basis of tying for both the face and back. — See Sample Xo. 
6, made from this weave. 

We do not wish the reader to understand that it were 
necessary to go through with all of the above different 
forms of construction, in order to lay out and construct this 
tripple weave, as such incomplete figures are only intended 
to illustrate our meaning in a better manner than could be 
otherwise done. Fig. 8, contains all of the former figures 
consolidated, and is in itself, the only one necessary to have 
made were the principles previously understood. Hence, 
we will not enter so fully into the details with the comming 
figures as done with that of the present one. 

Fig. 9. 

(1) 12 3 12 3 123123 

■■nn i ■♦nMnnnnnnnn 

■■nn 2 ■■ :■' .-■■. ;mn 

■)■ ftl s ■■'■ ■■■■■: ■■ ■■■ 

■□*□ 2 *□□■■#■□! :■*□ 

a a 3 ■■■■■■■■ ii : 

■□■□ , Q \ m :: :■♦: ■ n 

□■□■ (•>; 2 eb ■ bb::bzd 

Mnn* 3 B i iiibiidi 

M«nn 1 nan t :nBnn«nn 

□■■□ 2 ■□□■■□■□n*** 

■ ■ 3 II II IIIIBI 



— ti IC *. iT T. -J Oc \D O — t 



Fig. 9 is composed of the three weaves represented, con- 
sisting of a double-pick face, plain middle, cassimere back. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 95 

Fig. 10 is composed of the three weaves represented, 
consisting of the four-harness, broken twill face (one down 
and three up), plain middle, and cassimere twill back. 

Fig. 11 is composed of the three weaves represented, 
consisting of the four-harness, twill face (one down and 
three up), cassimere twill middle, and the back the same as 
the face weave reversed. 

Fig. 10. Fig. 11. 

(1) 12312312312 3 (1) 123123123123 

bbi ipppmppb>p«pp pbbb 1 pppbppbppbpp 

■ hi 2 ■■dm ;:■■:;■::: ■ on ■>■»■■ oh 

■ ma , r . 3 iiiaa ■■ bba ab ■ , r , 3 bbbii ■■ ■■ 

■■■□ (^) i bppbpppppbp. : ■■■p ( 2 ) i ■pppppbppb*p 
mnmn 2 ■□□■■♦■dub. in ■□□■ 2 ■■: ;i«n«nninn 

■ ■ DBB1BBBB BB ■■ Bfl BIBBB El 

■□■□ ,os 1 ■ ♦pppi.a: vzann pmp , Q \ 1 ■ppbpppppbpp 

pbljb (a) 2 ■■ ■:.-;: ;n*r.M : 1 ppbb W 2 ■ppmpbb>bpp 

b ' :b 3 is ib b ■□□□ 3 iiGiinimin 

■■dp 1 in:.in^iuc- zmr.u 1 ■_:n«t-n«nnnnn 

pmp 2BnnMBDB [□■■# : :pb : 2 b :pbppmpabp 

Bfl 3 BB BH B3BBBB ' : B 3 HB Bfl BB BOB 

H-b3C0.^CnCS<IGCSDC<i— >iO hWW^OiOSSOOiTOhW 

Fig. 12 is composed of the three weaves represented, 
consisting of a cassimere, broken twill face, the four-har- 
ness, broken twill middle (one up and three down), and the 
cassimere twill back. 

Fig. 13 is composed of the three weaves represented, 
cansisting of a plain face, cassimere broken twill middle, 
and a cassimere twill back. 

Fig. 12. Fig. 13. 

(1) 123 123 123 123 (1) 123 123123123 

■nun i ■pppppbppppp ■pap i bppppphppppp 

■■□n 2 *m#hppbppbpp □■rM 2 m^mppmpmpp 

□■□■ ,„>. 3 bbbbb: bb Bflfl ■pmp , 9 >. 3 bbbbq :bb abb 

ppm C^) 1 iaai»aannn;:3 pmp* ( 2 ) 1 pppm*ppppb:jp 

■ana 2 mp:;b ..paazapp ncmn 2 ■■pmpbppmpp 

PPBP 3 fllflflfliaa BB I ■■HP 3 ABBflflBflfl Bfl 

PAPP ,,> 1 □□□■ i;r;;-'iun PAPA ,qs 1 PMP! jPPMPPPPP 

PPPA («■>) 2 MPPMMPM >flDP PPMM W 2 MPnMMPMP#MMP 

■ ." :■ 3 aa BBBiBBaa ■ a 3 bb cbqebbbb 

■ ■PP 1 PPPPPPAPPA>P MMDP 1 PPPMPPnnPA»P 

piibp 2 BzaflnnBri^flfln paap 2 ma: mppmapmmp 

.::.■■ 3 fla El BflHflbfl bb 3 ■■ SB (--■ 



1 ;r. -i oo «chw 



From the preceding illustrations, the reader will, no 
doubt, obtain a pretty g;*ood idea of the construction of trip- 
pie weaves, particularly those of the smaller class. We 
will now illustrate some of the larger classes (within the 
limit of twenty-four harnesses) without showing the weaves 
from which they were composed, but will name such weaves 
as well as the positions which they occupy. We shall, how- 
ever, confine ourself to weaves of the common class. 



06 



THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 



Fig. 14, represents the common six-harness twill for 
the face, the three-harness twill (one up and two down) for 
the middle, and the six-harness basket for the back. 

Fig. 15, represents the three-harness twill (two up and 
one down) for the face, the six-harness basket for the mid- 
dle, and the common six-harness twill for the back. 

Fig. 15. 



Fig. 14. 

■♦ppppppppppflppflpp 

BB fl I II B a 

BflBBBflBBflBB II II ! 

b. k ,ar; .: r ;; ::::.:::: •;.:: :mr:i 
b : io«i : a : :■■ a 

■IIIBIBIIBI II 111 

■ ■ :■♦ ;::; 

b HPflPPflM a ■ ■■ 
igaiiiiiiM ii :■■□ 

i; :b ::;■ ipm ippppppp 

ai a : a :: .'■■♦■"■:i 

II Q9 13 913 

U ■;.;:.;■; :;ji»..nna 
nniri':.:a ■maempp 

flfl a j ii b an 

■ ■ a 

■ " :■ aa a a :bb» 

■ iib aa: laaiimi 



■^PBPPPPPBPPflPPPPP 

■■PflflPflflnflPPflPPflPP 



nr: ;b' b ii 
ai' ■■♦aa 

■nnnnna*[ 

BB BB' II 


n.ni': 
a b 

:b: idi :n: 
■□□■ li 


bi:p 
IB! □ 

MPP 
impp 


B 1PM! II ' II 

■ ii :■ '.' :■' ii 


fl II Ifl! II 

■ ■♦aa 


: :: :: ; 
■a: ; 
.aa ; 



■PPflPPI ; a* a 
a ii :■: ii '■■ hb :■■ 

BB BBBBIHIIII I 



■■nflfl: as 



as m ■■♦ 

BBBBBflaflfl 



Fig. 16, represents the six-harness basket for the face, 
the common six-harness twill for the middle, and the three- 
harness twill (two up and one down) for the back. 

Fig. 17, represents the common six-harness twill for the 
face, middle and back; each twill commencing on the same 
point, so that the face and middle twills lay directly under 
the face twill. 

Fig. 16. Fig. 17. 



■nPBPPBPPPPPPPPPPP 
■ ■♦■■ 'BflZflnnflnnflnr; 



■ :: a ■ 

■: ' ■ nsKH i3 n 

■■■■■ ■■■■■■■■■■■ 
r : '■♦::■ ~« n 

B' ::'■': a •; ;bb' ■■ hi 

■BBflflflfla; BflBflBflflfln 
■ ■ .:;■"■:: 

■■::;■ [i :■ ii ■ ■■♦■■'! 

flfl':flflflflflflflfl:.:flflflflBB 
■■ ;: :■ ■ '■ ".'■♦p 

■anflflPfli ipbpi '■' : map 

■■■■■n.flflflflflflflfl' ■■■ 



ipppppppppppflppi 
ifl*>flPPflPPflipPflflPi 



fl' ' 


■*p apppt 


:: ;■" IP 


■fl 


'■■: :■' ' ■::: 


B BB 


■PPMPPfl 


T IPPPPP 


■fl' 


:■■' ■■♦■ ii 


B B 




;■: 1PMPPB#! 




■ 


BB flfl BB 


■PUfll P 


■■' 


:■■■■■■■■■■■ i 


1 ■ 


I! OPflPi :an 


:ahpppp 


■PI 


fl' II Bl BB 


'■■♦■' ' 





in: :nnnnfl' :: 


"*i"r«»n 


fl' 


MPPflPPflflt 


"Hfl~flflP 



Fig. 18, represents the common four-harness twill for 
the face, the regular double pick (two and two) for the mid- 
dle, and the common eight-harness twill for the back. This 
tripple weave can be reduced and woven on eighteen har- 
nesses, if desired. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 



97 



Fig. 19, represents the common eight-harness twill for 
both the face and back, and the common eight-harness bas- 
ket for the middle. 

Fig. 18. Fig. 19. 



■nnnnppppapnannnnnnppflpp 



innfl*annnnnnflnnfln: ;:;. 

IflPflflPBPPflP' MBPflflPfll 



inn 



Bnn*nnnnnnnnannnnDBnnH ♦ □ 
■■□■■□■□□■□□■□l:b:::: H:iin 
anaaiiBi bi ii hisiiibi 

BnnBn.nflnnnnnnnnnnn: :nnflnn 
■■♦■■ninr:!' inr" 



ppphphbh. :n lannn 

BDUBnaBB^BBZiB T I 



;n:;n 

D 



in 



■.::□■♦□■:;::■: 

□ ■ BB IB B 



nnnnnnfln _!■>; tmnnnnnannflnn 
B^nBaaBBnBBnBnuBGDBBCBBn 
BB' ■■laaiBBBBaflflfl bb bb : 

Mnppnp'nnnflnnflpnnnnnnnflpp 
bb. bb iidi b [i :Bfl»Ba:iBnnBLin 
■■ niauiiMHiniiii bb: : 
annannnnnnnnflnna^nnnnnnn 
■ a bb a: ; it :; :hb :bb h a p 



pppappapnannannnnnnnnnnn 

■■naapan^a" EannannaanaBn 

BB BBBBBBBBBBflBBfl BB ■■ I 

□aan qnp aaw ♦ n«r :v.m: te onnnnu 
■nnin: :BHr;BB" '■■: iaanannann 



ii i 



i: i 



pnnannannnn: :nn p :an: ■□: .□ :□ 

BnL'iBanflBrjBHUB '.nBrMBB^BflP 
■ B :■■ ■■ HB IBBBBflflBBBBflfl 

nn innnanna :: :nn:.i inna.n. .■♦■:: 
■riLianuBH aa h :b-; bb :aa: i 
i; :bb: :aa' ma BBaaaaaaa 



pppmnnnnnan: :bp: .■: mm: 
m :_;b::~ bb: hb ■■•■■ b. 



pnnnnn: :: 

aana -;nMi 



aa bb bb: 



in 
:::nn 
in 
■ aa 

'Man 
■ :i i 



:nnnnnnn. 
□■□i .aani 



inP 

inn 






Fig. 20, represents the common eight-harness basket 
for both the face and back, and the common eight-harness 
twill for the middle. 

Fig. 21, represents the common double pick for the face, 
the common eight-harness twill for the middle, and the 
common cassimere twill for the back. 



Fig. 20. 

Mnnflnnflnnannppppppnnpppp 

■:■■♦■■■□■■• "■■iJBPPB: PBPPB IP 
BBBBBBBBBflflflflB. .BB BB BB I 

■□□■:#<pmp ;bppp: ;n;:nn :ppp: 

■ PriBB! [■■DBBPBBPBrJGBIPBI in 
BaflBBflBflBBBflBfl BB:BB BB □ 

■ppflnnanna' mnnnnnnr.i mnnn 
■pi ibppbb#bb bb ;aBPBn: :ann 

BBBBBBBBBBBBBa: BIB BB' HB 

■ni manu :PH*auL]n; .nn' :. .n: :np 
u inannani aa .'BBnaanaa: 'bpj 
bbbbbbbbbebbdb: hh aa eb : 



Fig. 21. 



n. .n nn' .: :u: : .: .a: :: a :: a ,: .a .: 


■ppb :nannan; 


BB*BB BB HB 


BB BB BB BB 


flaBBBCBIBBflB 


pppppppppp: :: 


b a* a h " : 


■apanna; inapt. 


jannaanaBnaan 


aa aa aa aa 


BBBBBI9BBBBBB 


nnnnnnnnnn: n 


a . a na a :n 


aanaanan :■□■ 


■ LIB' ,1 BB»BB 


BB' BB BB aa 


BaBBBBBiBBflfl 


nnnnppppp: ut 


jb; .: iBi ::jb: :. .■♦; i 


bb aa aa a 1 • 


a: :: a' :: a :: bb 


BB BB BB BB 


BBBBBBBBBBflB 



annannnnnnnnannannnnnnnn 

aB>BBnBn:-.:Bnna::nBnnaanBB' . 

BBBBBflBB: BB DSBBBBBB CB ' 

MPDM#nnnni :nnan:.:a: tnnnnnnp 
Banaanaananna' inannanrwan 

BB. BBBBBBBB BB BBBBBBBB I 

r innt mnannannn^nnn: .annanp 
■EiiDiitH' "■ppann«ppBPP 

: :n~'t :nna:T ■ ♦: :: : :an ann 

annBBnaB:::BB .hb: :an:.;anna:: r 
aflaaa: :bb: bqbbbbhb: bb bbb 
Bkinannnnnnnnannannnnnnnn 
Briua bb bb bh»bb: a;: am 

EBBQHBBB Bfl BBBHBBBB BB 

B .:;■ : ::::\m a* 

■ : ■: jiifln: :■■: :■■: ah: bb ■ 

BB BBBBBBBB BB BBBBBBBB 

jnnnnna. .: ann nn; n :: annann 
■nnnnnflnrifln: aa: bb: bb»bb i 



nnnnnna: :na:\: t n r m nnt 
bb' annan:::annannflfl: 

■ BflflB CB BBBBHBBB 



,b: :: :b 



♦P 
BP 



If required to reverse the position of any one of the 
above figures, so that the face will represent the back, and 
the back to represent the face, proceed in the same manner 
as described in the preceding chapter. 

13 



98 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

Fig\ 22, represents three two-harness plain weaves com- 
bined, but not stitched together; hence, they will produce 
three separate pieces of flannel, but bound together by the 
selvage only. In this method of weaving, each fabric re- 
ceives one pick in succession; hence if the warp is dressed 
one thread of each of three different colors in succession 
and filled in a like manner, the result would be three 
fabrics of the different colors respectively. 

Fig. 22. Fig. 23. Fig. 24. 



Mnonna 


□Manna 


■■□■□□ 


■ 





M«"Mnn 


i 


MMMnna 


MncMMn 


■■■■ "■ 


■■;:■■■ 


IB1UI ' 



nMnnnnnn 


■ . innan 


MMuMCiDDri 


IBB 


MMMMHM' :n 


MHMMH^Cn 


■aiiDD i 





Fig. 23 represents and will produce the same as Fig. 22, 
but in this method of weaving, each fabric receives two 
picks in succession, — which completes the weave and pat- 
tern — while in the other method, each fabric receives but 
one pick in succession. To weave, with this figure, three 
fabrics each of a different color, the warp would have to be 
dressed two of each color in succession and filled in a like 
manner. 

Fig. 2i, represents four two-harness plain weaves com- 
bined, and will produce four separate pieces of flannel. On 
this principle, a weave can be carried out to any required 
size, each two harnesses producing a separate piece of flan- 
nel. By stitching such flannels together in the process of 
weaving, any required thickness of cloth may be made for 
feltings, or other similar purposes. Goods woven on this 
principle are called 2, 3 or 4-ply cloth, according to the num- 
ber of different sets of harnesses employed; each single 
weave representing a set. 

In dressing warps for 3-ply cloths, three times the num- 
ber of ends should be used, if possible, in place of what 
would be required for the face weave if used singly. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 99 



CHAPTER XVI. 

RELATIVE LENGTHS PER POUND OF WOOLEN, WORSTED, 
COTTON, AND SILK YARNS. 

To give in detail the various systems of figuring yarns 
in Foreign countries, would be of little or no use here to 
the beginner; therefore, we shall confine this chapter to 
the systems generally adopted in this country, which are 
as follows: 

1600 yards of single woolen yarn = 1 run. 

240 yards " " " = 1 cut. 

560 yards of single worsted yarn = 1 number. 

840 yards " cotton " =1 number. 

840 yards " spun silk " =1 number. 

Note. — In our four-dollar work — "A Treatise on Designiug and 
Weaving Plain and Fancy Woolen Cloths" published in 1878 — we. gave 
300 yards as a cut ; since then we find there is a great diversity of opin- 
ions as to which is correct, 300 yards, or 240 yards. After a careful 
research we find that the former system is more generally calculated for 
linen yarns, and the latter system for woolen yarns. 

EXPLANATION: 

A woolen thread spun to that size which requires just 
1600 yards to weigh one pound, is called 1 "run." 

A woolen thread spun to that size which requires just 
240 yards to weigh one pound, is called 1 "cut." 

A worsted thread drawn to that size which requires 
just 560 yards to weigh one pound, is called 1 "number." — 
Written, No. l's. 



100 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

A cotton thread spun to that size which requires just 
840 yards to weigh one pound, is called 1 "number." — 
Written, No. l's. 

A spun-silk thread that requires just 840 yards to weigh 
one pound, is called 1 "number." — Written, No. l's. 

There is an important difference between silk and wors- 
ted, or cotton yarns, which requires to be borne in mind 
when making a calculation in these yarns. This difference 
refers to 2-ply yarns. In writing 2-ply 40's in worsted, or 
cotton, it is usually written 2-40's; thus indicating clearly 
that the actual counts of the yarn is only one-half of what 
it is termed; or, in other words, the actual counts of the 
yarn is 20's, simply because it is two threads of 40's put to- 
gether, making one thread of double the weight. In writ- 
ing 2-ply 40's in silk, it is usually written 40-2; thus indi- 
cating clearly that the yarn is still 40's though a 2-ply yarn ; 
hence the single threads must each have been 80's. 

COMPARISON. 

5i runs (woolen system) = 8400 yards to 1 pound. 

35 cuts (woolen system) = 8400 yards to 1 pound. 
No. 15's (worsted system) = 8400 yards to 1 pound. 
No. 10's (cotton system) = 8400 yards to 1 pound. 

No. 10's (spun-silk system) = 8400 yards to 1 pound. 

AGAIN: 

6f cuts (woolen system) = 1 run in length and weight. 
No. 2-f' s (worsted system) = 1 run in length and weight. 
No. 1-H's (cotton system) = 1 run in length and weight. 
No. liU's (spun-silk system) = 1 run in length and weight. 

Therefore it will be seen that, to convert runs into cuts, 
multiply the number of runs by 1600, and divide the pro- 
duct by 240; the quotient will be the number of cuts. 

To convert runs into worsted numbers, multiply the 
number of runs by 1600, and divide the product by 560; the 
quotient will be the number of worsted. 

To convert runs into cotton numbers, multiply the num- 
ber of runs by 1600, and divide the product by 840; the quo- 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 101 

tient will be the number of cotton. Proceed in the same 
manner to convert runs into spun-silk numbers. 

On the other hand, to convert cut numbers into runs, 
multiply the number of cuts by 240, and divide the product 
by 1600; the quotient will be the number of runs. 

To convert worsted numbers into runs, multiply the 
number of worsted by 560, and divide the product by 1600; 
the quotient will be the number of runs. 

To convert cotton, or spun-silk numbers into runs, mul- 
tiply the number of cotton, or spun silk by 840, and divide 
the product by 1600; the quotient will be the number of runs. 

EXEMPLIFICATION. 

5i runs, woolen thread, is equal to what size of cotton 
thread? Also what size of worsted thread? 

5i X 1600 = 8400 -^ 840 = 10's, the number of cotton. 

5i X 1600 = 8400 -^ 560 = 15's, the number of worsted. 

No. 20's, cotton thread, is equal to what size of woolen 
thread — both systems? Also what size of worsted thread? 

20 X 840 = 16800 -^ 1600 = 10£, the number of runs; or, 

20 X 840 = 16800 -^- 240 = 70, the number of cuts. 

20 X 840 = 16800 -^ 560 = 30's, the number of worsted. 

No. 40's, worsted thread, is equal to what size of cotton 
thread? Also what size of woolen thread — both systems? 

40 X 560 = 22400 H- 840 = 26^'s, the number of cotton. 

40 X 560 = 22400 -i-1600 = 14, the number of runs; or, 

40 X 560 = 22400 -^ 240 = 93i, the number of cuts. 

The beginner will find it for his interest to thoroughly 
familiarize himself with the above systems of yarn calcu- 
lations; therefore, if the same were committed to memory, 
it would be time well spent. 



102 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 



CHAPTER XVII. 

SAMPLES OF FABRICS WITH GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS 
FOR MAKING THEM. 

This chapter will be to a certain extent a recapitulation 
of former ones, this we deem advisable in order to have 
all of the samples with the weaves and general information 
concerning them to appear under the same heading. 

Sample No. 1 — Weave No. 1. This represents a combi- 
nation stripe composed of a six-harness diagonal, but wove 

ends. 



on twelve harnesses with 


a cross draw. Warp 1800 ei 


dressed as follows: 






21 white. 




6 olive. 


5 black. 




6 white. 


22 white. 




6 olive. 


1 red and blue D. 


&T. 


6 white. 


5 olive. 




5 olive. 


6 white. 




1 red and green D. & 



90 threads in the pattern. 

No. 12^ reed, 4 threads in a dent: 36 inches inside of 
selvage. 

Filling, pick and pick of black and drab: 60 picks per 
inch in the loom. 

Weight from loom 11 oz. Finished weight 9 T 4 ¥ oz. For 
further information, see chapters seven and eight. 

Sample No. 2 — Weave No. 2. This represents a cassi- 
mere twill wove on eight harnesses, and backed 1 and 1 
the filling way. 

Warp 1440 ends of black, 3f runs. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 103 

No. 10 reed, 4 threads in a dent: 36 inches inside of 
selvage. 

Filling, pick and pick, 1 pick of white for the face, and 
1 pick of black for the back; both fillings spun 3f runs: 84 
picks per inch in the loom. 

Weight from loom 13^ oz. Finished weight 11 oz. 

Sample No. 3 — Weave No. 3. This represents a cassi- 
mere twill wove on sixteen harnesses, and backed 1 and 1 
the warp way. 

Warp 2400 ends of 3f runs, dressed 1 thread of black 
for the face, and 1 thread of brown for the back. 

No. 11 reed, 6 threads in a dent: 36 inches and 4 dents 
inside of selvage. 

Filling, brown of 3f runs: 46 picks per inch in the loom. 

Weight from loom 12 oz. Finished weight 10 T 3 o oz. 

Sample No. 4 — Weave No. 4. This represents a cassi- 
mere twill wove on twelve harnesses, and backed 2 and 1 
both warp and filling ways. 

Warp 2160 ends, dressed 2 threads of dark brown 3f 
runs for the face, and 1 thread of black 3 runs for the back. 

No. 10 reed, 6 threads in a dent: 36 inches inside of 
selvage. 

Filling, 2 picks of white 3| runs for the face, and 1 pick 
of black 2 runs for the back: 60 picks per inch in the loom. 

Weight from loom 14^ oz. Finished weight 11 T V oz. 

Sample No. 5— Weave No. 5. This represents a double 
fabric wove on sixteen harnesses, and consists of an eight- 
harness basket for the face, and the regular eight-harness 
twill for the back. 

Warp 3200 ends of 3| runs, dressed 1 thread of brown 
for the face, and 1 thread of black for the back. 

No. 11 reed, 8 threads in a dent: 36 inches and 4 dents 
inside of selvage. 

Filling, pick and pick, 1 pick of black for the face, and 
1 pick of brown for the back; both fillings spun 3f runs: 
96 picks per inch in the loom. 

Weight from loom 18yV oz. Finished weight 15^ oz. 

Sample No. 6 — Weave No. 6. This represents a triple 



104 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

or three-ply fabric, wove on twelve harnesses, and consists 
of a cassimere twill for both the face and back fabrics, and 
a plain two-harness flannel in between them ; or, in other 
words, in the middle. 

Warp 3360 ends of 3f runs, dressed 1 thread of brown 
for the face, 1 thread of white for the middle, and 1 thread 
of black for the back. 

No. 12 reed, 8 threads in a dent: 35 inches inside of 
selvage. 

Filling, 1 pick of black for the face, 1 pick of white for 
the middle, and 1 pick of brown for the back; all three fill- 
ings spun 3f runs: 90 picks per inch in the loom. 

Weight from loom 19^ oz. Finished weight 16^ oz. 

Sample No. 7 — Weave No. 7. This represents an eight- 
harness diagonal stripe. 

Warp 1056 ends of 3 runs for both the single and double 
yarns, and dressed as follows: 

1 black and white D. & T. 1 drab. ) „ +• _ 

2 white. 1 white. \ 6 times * 
1 black and white D. & T. 1 drab. 

23 white. 14 white. 

44 threads in the pattern. 
No. 10 reed, 3 threads in a dent: 35 inches and 2 dents 
inside of selvage. 

Filling, dark blue of 2| runs: 32 picks per inch in loom. 
Weight from loom 9^ bz. Finished weight 8^ oz. 
Sample No. 8 — Weave No. 8. This represents a combi- 
nation stripe of a combined weave, — fourteen harnesses 
with a cross draw. 

Warp 2800 ends of 2-40's worsted, dressed as follows: 
20 black. 1 or. s. & blk. wors'd D.& T. 

4 light drab. . 4 light drab. 

1 or. s. & blk. wors'd D. & T. 20 black. 
11 black. 9 black and white D. & T. 

70 threads in the pattern. 
No. 14 reed, 6 threads in a dent: 33 inches and 5 dents 
inside of selvage. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 105 

Filling, black, of shoddy and waste, 2 runs: 40 picks 
per inch in the loom. 

Weight from loom 12 oz. Finished weight 10 T V oz. 

The weight of each fabric, as weighed from the loom, 
applies to one yard in length, regardless of the width; but 
the finished weight applies to one yard in length, and 27 to 
28 inches in width inside of selvage, in each instance. 

In the first six samples the yarns in several instances, 
both in the size and colors, were not just what they should 
have been, neither were they what we desired them to be; 
but the reader will please bear in mind that, to get out sam- 
ples of only several yards each, with such a variation in 
the style and construction, would require a larger range of 
yarns, particularly as to their size, than is usually found in 
any one well-regulated mill. Therefore, to avoid the addi- 
tional expense of having the yarns manufactured expressly 
to our liking, such yarns as were already at hand were used 
in the construction of those fabrics; hence the reason of so 
little variation in some instances and none at all in others 
in regard to the size of the yarns used. The first six sam- 
ples were accordingly made to our dictation in this State 
(New York), while the two others, seven and eight, were 
made in Bradford, England. 

Sample No. 1 was designed especially as an illustrative 
piece for the foundation of this work. 

Samples No. 2, 3 and 4 were designed especially to illus- 
trate the work and appearance of fabrics when backed in 
accordance with the three methods demonstrated in chap- 
ter twelve. 

Samples No. 5 and 6 were designed especially to illus- 
trate the work and appearance of two-ply and three-ply, or 
double and triple, fabrics as demonstrated in chapters four- 
teen and fifteen respectively. 

In presenting in this work those latter five samples, we 
have deemed it advisable to place them in such a manner 
that the reader would see both the face and back of the 
fabric at the same instant, thus enabling him a freer scope 
for an intellectual view; hence the reason of each of those 

14 



IOC 



THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 



samples being - inserted in two pieces. The following- weaves 
are those by which the samples were woven. 



Weave No. 1. 



□□■MBOBnnCMM 

nnniiinnnm 
niiinainrni 
[i ■■■□■nnnmi 
■■■' in iinnnn 
□■■■□□■■ nan 
■■nn~«nninL 
mmmaanmmmaa.a 

■ ' ; :: :■■: i ■■■□ 
■■ iwn '■■■nn 

:: .: :bbb :: i bob 
■nnnimniBiBi_. 

w fcO CO Jk Cn €0^3 00 CO O *■•* t3 

Drawnist-m Draft. 

iz\::: ;: ;nn 
i : . Dan 
innnann 
nrwnannnnnnn 
nnmnnunnnn:: 
nnannnnnnnnn 
-ainninnnnnn 
nnnnn*nnnnnn 

B 

rin«nnnnannnn 
nnBnaananann 

:b ■; ' 
nmnninnnnnn 
■■■■■■nnnnnn 
bbbbbb nnnnn 
bbbbbbbbbbbb 

■ ■■■in 

■ ■■■ 

iHimuiii 



Weave No. 2. 

□□■■::□■■ 



□■■o nmn 

■II III! 

■ B I BB 
I3IOII I 

■ ' bb ::■ 

■ BBBBBB 

:■■ ii 

•BBB BBB 

ii iJBB : 

BMBBBBB 

■ b : ib ' 

BBBBB 



I 



BBBBB BB 



Weave No. 7. 

B BBB 

numnni 
■■■□nnmn 
■■nnnmnB 
■" □□■□■■ 

' B ■■■ 

;t i in : 

■ bbb : 



Weave No. 8. 

■□■□■MBDMrzEMn 

■■■r!i:::iiiirjir.: 
nun ibb nnn 

: I BBBBBB m BB 

bob ■■: ■ :■■■■ 

■BOB I 1191 ■ 

■ ;■■■■ BBB'JB. '■ 

■ I llll I BBB 
Bfln B BB GBDI I 

BIDS BBBBB B ! 

■ ■■■■' :: : ■ :■ 
■■r:ir:iB :nm; -urn 

BBBBB II : II 

■ BB3H :: :: ei bb 

■ a Biai ; '■■■ 

■ ■■' ■: ■ ii :■■: | 

■ ■■■"■': ii iei 
: ■ iiiiii ii 
■■■■■: BBB ■ 

BBBB B B BB B 

■ ' BBHB BBB_ B 

l> ra w i na- i »" D raf "ft 

■■■■■■mnn:;;:jn 
■■■■■■b irji ;nn:u.i 
■■■■■■■; ii i: •■: 
■■■■■■■nnnnnnn 
■■■■■■■::'::: 
■ibbbbb :nnnnn: i 
■■■■■■■' nnnnnn 
■■■■■■■nnnnnnn 



Weave No. 3. 

nnnnanannnnnMBi \ 
nnMBnnnnninBnnn 
■ ■ : ' ■■■ ' 

■ .■■■ ■:: :• nam. : 
□□mpb; ;n; :nn«»Binnn 
■■■nnnnni' :■. i 
■nnnnn«BBnnnnni|g 

— ic ic 4. di as -^oo too H*toc*^ cnos 



Weave No. 5. 

: :nnn« "■"■□■n 

■■■ :■ ■ ■■■■■■ 

nnnnni; :inmn 

■ ■ ■ ■ ■■■»■■■■ 

nnnnnnnninmi «□ 

-; B E IIBIIIIII 

' BBB B B : 

■■ iiiiiiiii a ; 

mau\ nam' innnn: 
■niMiiiniinn; :m 
■nmiiBnnnnnnnnn 
iiiiiiiii iniain 

Mninimunnnnnnnn 
■■■■■■■nnnininii 
■■■nBninnnnnn 

■■■■■nmigigiiii 

— i i cc 4- Cfl C- <i QC X C *-" ti W * Cn 03 



Weave No. 4. 

nmaaaamna 
i mam iniMinn 

fl-OBBB BBBBB 

bb: :; :: ■■ 

■ ■■■ ! ii ■■ 

nnniiiiinnniin 
□■■■nnnMBB in 

■ ■■■■' BBBBB 

Minn ■' ■■' :: 

■ i :■■■ i ii ■■ 



Weave No. 6. 

■nnnnnnniinn 

■ ■' -innii'iinr 
■■■■■' ■■ ■■■ 

■::;:■; ;: " 

■ Timinniin 

■■■BBBBB ■■ 

ii 'I " ■■ ii i 

naiiniiainn 
■ii' ■■bbbbbb 

nnnn !n«ni 'inn 

■ : : ■■' ■ ii ■■■ 




Sample No. 1. 

■■■nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnpnnnMBMFiLL. 

■■□□pannage aaaannnnnaannnnnnanuM 

^_ .' - . \ ' ' W _*P4 

Hnn 
En 

_3n 

|pp 

pF 

" mnr 
■■■nnnnnppnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnndnMMB} 



Sample No. L 2. 

■■panppnnnppnnpnpnnnnnnnnnnnnpefiS 

PtV&\V\VOn&\«i9BBBJBBVjMBSJBJBJBl 

NWoNOcvNwCH ■nt 




■■aaaan face nnnunnnnn back □□□□£■■ 
■■■papppnppnnnnnnnnnppppnpnppnM* 



Sample No. S. 

■■■□□□pppppppnuuuunnnnnpn iipi 
■■□ppppppppppppppppppppppppppppi 

□□ 
□a 
□□ 
□□ 
□□ 
u~ 
nn 
pp 
pp 
□a 
□a 
□a 
□a. 
□□ 
■□. 

!□ FACE PPPPPPPPP BACK DDL 

pppncnnnnnnnnnnnpppppnnnnnn 




Sample No. 4. 

"ipppppppppppnnnpPMM 

"□ppppppi 




■■aanca face □□□□□□□□a back □□□□□■■ 

■■■UUPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPBBB 



Samule N'o. 5. 

■■■PPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPMB 

■ ■□aapaPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPaM 

□□!■ B—i tflBttl 

nr:B Dm 

a ^^^^^■naa 

no™ ■ 

p:« BBfi 

H ■□an 

□■jpBMWWWi ■ 

■ 5Hf?B5HHHiPBHBBHPJHppl 
■■ppj !□□ face ppppppppp back □□□□□■■ 
■■■pppppppppppppppppppppppppppmm 



Sample No. 6. 

□ppppppppppppppppppppppppcpbm 




BACK P hnH PMW 

PPPPPPPPPBM 



Sample No. 7. 

■■■□nppppppppppnnnnnppppppppppM** 

■ ■ JPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPDPPPPPPPPPPPM 

■a annpppppppppa pppppppppppppppaDM 

□ 
□ 




■i 

□fa, 

pp 
pp.- 

■□□□□PPPPPPPE 



P 
.□ 

nan 
□an 

BBa 

□□□ 
nnnpB 



Sample No. 8. 

■■■□pppppppnpnnppnppppppnippppPM* 
■■pppppppppppppppppppppppppppppmb 
■nnannnnpppppppppppnppppppppyana« 
nnn , ..T naa 

M. V^bM^b M ffMH Hi^Hii n: .t 



innnnnnaunnpnnppnpnnpppppppnnn 

■■■pppppppppppppppppppppppppppbm 




n 

nn 

aa 

bb: 

nn 

pp 

np 

aa 

nn 

Bp ti 

□□□ 

■□□□□ 

■■nnnnnnnnnnnnnnp 



ppp 
~pp 

□□ 
: a 

□□ 
pp 

ee 

pp 

□□ 

□□□ 

nnn 

aaa: ■ 
-ppdnnannnnnni " 



pppppppppppppppppppppppppppmb 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 107 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

MISCELLANEOUS WEAVES. 

The term ^miscellaneous," when used in this connec- 
tion, covers a large field; in fact, so large that all we shall 
undertake in this direction will be to give the reader a brief 
description of a few of the many important weaves that are 
in use at the present time, — all of which have been selected 
with care in the interest of the beginner. 

Not one of the weaves herein given is imaginary, but 
each and every one has been put into actual practical work- 
ing; and a sample of the finished fabric, to match each 
weave, is in the author's possession. 

Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. 



BHnaan 


aaaa 


aanaanannann 


nanaaa 


□□■□■■ 


nnaaaa 


: ■■■■■: ■ 


■ I MO i 


i Manna 


aannaa 


: :b: :; : ;: bbbb a 


nnnaaa 


annaan 


■ BIB 


■a: mb annann 


BBS 


aanann 


nnaaaa 


ii bb : a ma 


nnanaa 


: Manna 


aannaa 


nnnnananaBBB 


fl B B 1 


-l.-vJ-CnOT 


»— fcO W *. iT OS 


t-"fcsw.t.c>'a:-ioc;c3>— it 


*"'-"-■'■-"' 



Fig. 1 represents a pretty little weave for light-weight 
goods of small checks, or in solid colors or mixes. 

Fig. 2 represents a weave which produces a cord effect, 
the warp way, and is a good thing for fine stripes. 

Fig. 3 represents a peculiar weave for stripes, and in 
reality it is a combination; the last six harnesses work the 
same as the first six but in a reversed position, and also the 
working of both the warp and filling threads are reversed. 
Harnesses 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 11, weave a warp back which 
may be of cotton yarn, while the remaining harnesses 



108 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

weave the face which should be of woolen yarn, with filling 
the same; thus producing a fabric of an all-wool face and 
a cotton back. 

Fig. 4 represents a good thing for weaving fancy suit- 
ings, dressed 1 thread each of three colors, or different kind 
of yarns, and filled in a like manner. 

Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. 



sal ■■■ 


■•■ BUI 


BB BB 


■□□■□■* '■ 


□□■■□□■□ 


■ ■■BBS 


■□■■□□□■ 


■■::: a a : 


I IBI II 


•: .■::::: :■ ; 


■ ■ Bfl 


niinci^i 


■nnnannn 


■□□□■■□n 


■■□□□■■□ 


■ ".■■:::.■: : 


■El III 


■■■: :■■■ 1 


□■■□□□■■ 


riniirn 


□□■□□□■■ 


■::■■■□■■ 


□□□■■._.■■ 


■□■□■■□" 


■ IIILJII 


:i :■' \ .: a 


a: :: bb :■ 


□■□■□■■□ 




■■□□■nnn 


□■■□■■□□ 


□□■:.:■. ■■ 

h- li iC 4- O" S3 -JOC 



Fig. 5 represents a double plain weave suitable for 
making light feltings, or heavy meltons. 

Fig. 6 represents the same as Fig. 5, but instead of be- 
ing laid out 1 and 1 both warp and filling ways, it is laid 
1 and 1 the warp way, and 2 and 2 the filling way. 

Fig. 7 represents a pretty diagonal effect, and is a com- 
mon weave for suitings, in either worsted or woolen yarns. 

Fig. 8 represents a plain diagonal for light weights. 

Fig. 9. Fig. 10. 

■■□!"!□■■■■□ □■□■□■■: '■• ;■.□□□□□ 

□□□■■□■■■■ □■□■■: M B :□□□□□■ 

■in iBB. :□□ □■■□■□■□□□□□□■□■ 

□■■■■nnnM ■□■□■□□□□□□■□■□■ 

■ ■ ': :: :■■■■□ ■□■nnnpni [■□■□■■a 

□ ■■■■■■ ■□□□□□□■□■□■■□■q 
mnniinDD b b bb □ b 

□■■■■□□□■■ nDnBCBl^BlHCB^B'uDg 

Fig. 9 represents a creased stripe, or, when produced in 
fine worsted yarns it may be classed as a tricot weave, run- 
ning lengthwise of the cloth. 

Fig. 10 represents a double twill. The warp may be 
made either plain or striped when, if the same be filled with 
two colors, run in 4 and 4, it will produce a pretty pattern. 

Fig. 11 represents a good weave for producing a cord 
stripe in fine worsted yarns of all one color. 

Fig. 12 represents a peculiar little weave, the fabric 
when made of fine worsted yarns, resembles a perfect tricot 
— showing a very small rib the filling way. The filling is 
entirely covered by the warp on both sides of the fabric. 



Fig. 11. 


Fig. 12. 


■■■■nnnn 


■■□□■□ 


rJEXIBJClMM 


□■: :■■□ 


■■■■nana 


■ ■ ■ 


■□□□■■■□ 


□□■■ m 


■■■■nana 


■■n;-«n 


□□□■□■■■ 


b :■■: 


■■■■□nnn 


B B ■ 


■nnn««Bn 

-i::;-;r--i/ 


□□■■□■ 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 109 

Fig. 13 represents a good weave for silk mixes, either 
in worsted or common woolen yarns for suitings. 

Fig. 14 represents the weave of an 8-thread rib with a 
4-thread crease. If made of fine yarns it will produce a nice 
pattern for trouserings. By following this principle of 
weaving, a rib of any required size may be made. 



Fig. 13. 


Fig. 14. 


Fig. 15. 


Fig. 16. 


□□■□□■MB 


□■□■□■□■□■□■ 


■□□□■■■□ 


■□□□■■■□ 


nrmnci 


■■■■■■■■□□□□ 


■■□□■■an 


□□■□■□■■ 


■■ODBOnB 


■i ■ ■ ■ ■□■! : 


■■■□■□on 


□ BIJOBBI fl 


OB' 'OBflfl: : 


■■■■■■■■□□□□ 


■■■■□□□□ 


. ■ EEfl 


OBBBOLJB: ": 


□■□■ranaoanH 


□□□: '■■■■ 


bbb. Br: 1 


■□□■□□■■ 


■■■■■■■■□□□□ 


□□□■□■■■ 


■ mm ■ : 


■□□■■■□a 


■! ■ ■: !■ ■ m : 


ITOBBnLBB 


■■r«CBOE 


■■■□□■on 

*-t5Wa*CnO»~^0C 




□■■■□□□■ 


LMBEDOB 



i os ^1 qo es Q •— to 



Fig. 15 represents a desirable weave for coarse yarns 
in two, three or four colors, run in 4 threads of each color 
both in the warp and filling. 

Fig. 16 represents a good weave for producing a check 
effect with a warp of all one color, and filling of another, 
either in fine or coarse yarns. 

Fig. 17. Fig. 18. Fig. in. Fig. 20. 

■□■□■□■ □■□■□■□■■ BOBnBnBBOBn bbbbbbobobobo 

■ ■ ■!> ■ B BE ■ ■□■□■■□■□■□ BBOBCBOBnflBBB 

■ ■■ » a me b ■ ■■■■■■ □■□■□■■■■■■□■ 
■■□■□in □■■□■"■□■ ■■_■□■□■□■□ . ihbibi ■ ■ ■ 

e a bb ■oaniOHOB ■ n ■ b ■■ ■■■ b ■ ■ abb 

□BOBBDB ■□■□■□■■□ □■□■□■OBBDB BCBOBOBBBBBBn 

□BBOBOB ■□■□■■□■□ □■□■! ■■□■□■ I BBBBBB B ■□ 

».t9ce*.3.a-4 ■□■■□■□■□ □■□■■ ■ !■□■ flHflB ■rBHBOBJB 

!□■□■□■□ rBBOBOBCBQB □■LflrflOflflBBBB 

■:■::■::■ bob ■ ieifin d i 

■ ' ■ H ■ BB flflflflfl ■□■□■□■ 



i-lOK^Oia^*3 



HKBMS-JMO- ■□■□■□■□! 

■□■□■■■■■■□■□ 

t— t5CC4-CJ»O-JQ0^O — »-wiC 

Figs. 17, 18, 19, and 20 represent what are known or 
classed as cork-screw weaves, and are used extensively in 
weaving worsted, and imitation of worsted suitings. 

Fig. 21. Fig. 22. Fig. 23. 

OBOBnBOBnnaB □■□■□■□□■□□■ □■■»«□□□□□■ 

bbob: '■■::■□□: : ■ ■■ ■ bb bbbb: b:::b' no; : 

□■□■: IB ■□■□□ □■□■□□■:■□■":■ BBflrBBn^Bn^n 

■: b 'b: m !■□■□ ■□bpcbd: ■□■□ BBnBBBnnnBm 

a bb a a bb BiL'fl : flinin bobbbb"; :; nan 

bob: ;■< ■: :b: bo ■□□■□! :■: !■□■□ ■■■■■: !■□! ]□□□ 

□■ □;.■:_:■: :b:;b ;:: bl;:b: ;■::■: :■ □□□□□■:_:bbbbb 

■□■□□□■■□■□■ □■□["!bb:.;b bb: □■□□□□■■■■□b 

□Bnanr: ■; ini BrnBOBOBOBOo xiBnooBBBr bb 

bob: [fl B ■□■! i □□■□■□■: ■□□■ □□□bi~lbb: bbb 

□■□■fl-rflnflflnfl □■■□■□■■□□■□ ' ■□■□■■■■ 

BnanBOBnanBo ■□■□■□■□□■□n ■□□□□□■■BMy 

Figs. 21, 22, and 23 represent weaves designed more 
especially for light-weight worsteds which are extensively 



110 



THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 



used in coatings, although the latter weave is used some- 
what with common woolen yarns to produce a check effect: 
— Warp of all one color and filling of another. 



Fig. 24. 

□■□■■□□■□■■□ 

■■MBnnHHHn 





■■□□■□■■pi [■□ 


■ :□■■■■□□■■□ 


■ a ■■■■■ bhi 

: B HB | ■ ■■ 


11 B 1113 


■ II 


■ a m as !□■ : 


■□□■■□■□□■■■ 



Fig. 25. 

■□□■■□■□□■■□ 
■■□□■□■■::□■■ 
■ a lain ■■■ 

□■□■■ :□■□■■□ 
■■■■ :: bb a j 

BBUBB BBBBB 

■□□■■□■□□■■□ 

■■□□■■■■□nan 



Fig. 26. 



r: 



BBBBB BBHBB 



i-»tocotfa.cnss-'joo:oe*-to 



■□ 

■■■■□□ 
■n 



i a -j oo "^ o i- ts 



■□□■□□ 


nonnnc 


■ ■■■■LI 


■ BBBB 


□□□□■□□■□n 


■BB BBBBB BB 


i in; ii n iedwi ilib 


■BBBBB BBBB 


■□□■1 11 


nnLiunu 






□□□□■□ 


a :: 


■ BB BB 


■■■□■■ 


: :l:l::::: 


:i;b; ' ■ 


■ ■BBsa ■■■■ 



. i,-i n -i oo co <z> •— ' t 



Figs. 24 and 25 represent beaver weaves, backed 2 and 
1 both ways of the fabric. Sometimes these weaves are 
used for weaving very heavy meltons. 

Figs. 20 and 27 represent fur-beaver weaves; they are 
also used for weaving chinchillas. 



Fig. 27. 


Fig. 28. 


Fig. 29. 


Fig. 3C 


□□□□Bona 


■i |i ii huh in 


■■■□■□□□■□ 


□□■■■ 


BBBBBBB 


nnr:: :■": : 


□■■■"■□□□■ 


■□■■□ 


:!■□□□: o 


■ ' BBS BB 


■□■■■□■□□u 


□■■■□ 


■■■■■nil 


BBB' B fl : 


□■□■■■□■an 


□■■□■ 


: in ii oi ■ ; 


;• :b:: 


□□■'_;■■■□■□ 


■■■nr: 


■■□■■■■■ 


□□□□□□■□ 


:□■: ;fl«BL:B 


BB ■: : 


nnnaann:: 


I BBBB B : 


fl B ■■■ 


BB fl 


■■■■■■■□ 


BBBB BB. : 


■ : ■. ■■■ 


■□■□■ 


■□□□□□□: i 


□■□□□□ 


■□■□□□■□■■ 


■□□■■ 


IE11 III 


□□□■□ 


■■□■□□□■□■ 


B BB 


□□□□I ;■ . 


BB: BB 'fl 


h-» t9 CO -U pi OB -4 00 CC — 


H-t-SCCfc o\ 


fl: BBBBBB 








□□■□□ 


-t;^^:i 31-^100 






■ ■■■■■LIB 








.;,:;: ; :■ 








■Bfl-flBBB 
■— ii io j-. oi Oi *-j oo 









Fig. 28 represents a weave of the fur-beaver style, or 
chinchilla pattern. Harnesses 6 and 8 are for weaving a 2- 
thread stripe on the back — should no stripe be desired, drop 
out those two harnesses, using but six. The distance be- 
tween the stripes can be governed by the number of threads 
drawn on harnesses 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 — straight draw. 

Fig. 29 represents a nice diagonal for common woolen 
yarns. This weave is one that will form a perfect cut-off 
in either a herring-bone or a diamond pattern. 

Fig. 30 represents a pretty little diagonal — throwing up 
a nice, round cord — for fine worsted coatings. This weave 
is a combination of two five-harness twills — a bar of each 
alternately. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. Ill 

Fig. 31 represents a weave used in making a class of 
goods called Moscow-beavers, which are given a soft velvet 
finish, and sold for cloakings and overcoatings. 

Fig. 32 represents a weave designed for a cheap grade 
of '"Moscows" with a cotton-warp backing. 

Fig. 33 represents a doeskin-beaver weave, designed 
for fine-face goods of a high finish. 

Fig. 31. Fig. 32. Fig. 33. 

bbebeebbebee bbebbeebebbebee 

■■□□■ hub i iei ■ eg b bb 

■ edihhiih iibi3eiieiei iri 

ebebb ebeebe pbpmi bpdbbpbbp 

bdpbbbb ni«a bbebeebb: bbb. be 

■ BIIBHB: IE! BBBflflEBflflBBflflBB 

bd b bbebe: h ebbebb: jeb: bib 

■HXmnHDDM BB ebb B fliBi b 

ECflEB BBBHHB EBB BEBBE 

n*r bbeebebbe ■■PEW nil .beebbe 

■r'BBB nw innai i pbpbb; -b: idbbdbbb 

BEBBflflflBBBB : BEBBEBBD EBEBBB 

Mtsos^oia-JODttioPEa IK ■ BB 'BBuLBn 

BEEBBEBBBi BEBBE 

HbOUtbCnt^QieOOHtOCiOi^Cn 

Fig. 34 represents a good diagonal for coatings, in eith- 
er worsted or common woolen yarns. 

Figs. 35 and 36 represent good, useful weaves for work- 
in up various grades of cheap stock; sometimes they are 
used in weaving a certain class of light-weight beavers. 



□b BPBPBPMPB 


PBBBEBBBEBBB 


EBBBBBBBBBBB 




B EBB BBB BB 


BBflflflBBBBEBB 


PBPBPBPBDBPB 


BB BBB BBB B 


BPBPBEBEBl BP 


BBB BBB BBE3 


m w w ^ oi r. *-i cc c o h- t; 



Fig. 34. 




Fig. 35. 




Fig. 36. 


PPPBBEBEBBB 




PEBEBBBEBE 




BBBEBEEEBE 


■PMBjBinPJ BB 




BEBEEEBEBB 




;: .BEBBBDBE 


DEBBDBEBHBE 




BBBEBEEEBE 




BEBEEEBEBB 


EBBBE^EBBEB 




BEEEBEBBBE 




BEBBBEBEEP 


PBBEBEBBBEE 




B BBBEBEEP 




BEEEBEBBBE 


BBBEEEBB 'BE 




Efl EBI ■■ 




BBBEBEEEBU 


BBEBEBBBEEE 




BEBEEEBEBE 




eebebbbeb: : 


BBEEIEBBEBEB 




BBBEBEEEBE 




BEBEEEBEBB 


BPBPBBBPPPB 




BEE' 'BEBBBE 




BEBBBEBEEE 


BEEEBBEBEBB 




B BBB H 




BEEEBEBBBE 


■ BOB BB 




Mwcc*.cnc;^ooao 




►—iiW*-cioa , *-JOD«e© 


Fig. 37. 


Fig 


. 38. Fig 


39. 


Fig. 40. 


BBBPPPBP 


PPBPBPBB PBBBPBBB 


BEBEBEBE 


■PPPBPBM 


BPBBPPBP 3PBI 


EEBE 


BEBBBEBB 


BPBBBPPP 


BEBEBBEC B BBB 


EBEBEBEB 


P" 1B~BBBP 


BBLIP 


BEBE r;"EB 


EEEB 


; BBB. BBB 


BBBPPPBP 


deb: : 


BEBB BBB 


BBB 


BEBEBEBE 


■PPPBPM 


BEBB 


EEBE EBEE 


EBEE 


BBB BBB 


bebbbeep 


BEBE 


BB : . BB BBB 


EBEBEBEB 


:::pb: :bbbd 

■— LS CO .fc* Cn OS -4 CO 


BBPPBDBE BEEPBEPP 

— iz ta *- in Oi -4 Gt) h^fcOO0tt»Cn«O--IQO 


BBEBBBEB 

>— t-i Co J* Oi OS -J Co 



Figs. 37 and 38 represent weaves used quite commonly 
in making hair-lines, and various styles of narrow stripes. 

Fig. 39 repsesents the common, four-harness tricot 
weave for fine, piece-dyed, and highly finished tricots. 



112 



THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 



Fig. 40 represents a weave used in making a fine grade 
of goods called Granite. They are usually woven white, 
piece-dyed, and finished the same as fine broadcloths for 
dress-up suitings. 



Fig. 41. 



□■nnnn»n«rM« 


nj p : ■ ■naaizM 


;: :■; :■ hb. a . . 


■n« .■■::■: nan 


uv-mm- maanzua 


BB _■ ' ,n ■-■ ' 


■ :: '■ a :■■ 


:innn«nBn««nB 


nnBaBDBaaBnn 


■nB^BBGanncn 


■□■■□■^nnnan 


■■n«nann*DBn 


-tiKAilir;MOt^C-t5 



Fig. 42. 

□■■□■■□■M«nn 
naiiuiiiLiin 
■::■■: :■■■::.::■ 
aa abb aa :: 
bb obb 19 

Baa bb aa 
nBBBnmBB* :■■ 

■ ■□■■rJDGBBriB 

■ ■ i: :: aa aa :■ 
: ;■■ : :■■: :■■■ 

■ ■: :■■ in 
■u: .; ai 



Fig. 43. 

bbb in amm 

: b □ b a a: ' 

na .bbb bbb b 

■::■■■. icannnn 

a : :b: :lbbb 

■■■□■■■ntJEOD 



■ .i 



imamuaar.a 
innannniBi 

M«Br.;nnan 

■GOnMPPnMlQB 



Fig. 41 represents a double twill which makes a hand- 
some pattern when used on a warp of two colors, dressed 
1 and 1, and filled with a third color. 

Fig. 42 represents a weave which throws up a large di- 
agonal cord, and is a desirable thing for coatings. 

Fig. 43 represents a small, block weave having a rib 
appearance when produced in fine worsted yarns, making 
a pretty pattern for fancy suitings. 

Fig. 45. Fig. 40. 



Fig 


44. 


■CMMOB«r 


■ ■: aa 










a aa aa 


■■' ::r a ■ 


aa aa aa 


aa aa aa 


i::z a '■■n 


a ii aa 


'a :bb: :■ 


□■■DMainn 


:;■ ibpibb 


■■ :■■ 


B [BBDBBD 


■n.BBnni 


aa aa a 


' ;bb : r a 


Bflriflflnflfl 


bb a ■ 


■ ■■ wan 


■:;? ;hi':bi 


aa aa a 


:: a aa 


■■' aa aa 








•X'C-t;«*.iiir, 



□nnoM*BB] 


bbb aaa 


■□nn .bbb 


a aaa aa 


■■.nnnnaa. 


aa aaa a 


■BBn~naB 


BBB BBB : 


■ ■BBDCTJn 


I 


■ Ill 


■! Ill II 


n^BBBBan 


bb aaa a 


H BBBB'l 


aaa aaaa 



■□□nnBBnnBBnnBBB 


■■nnni ii ii i ii 


■■■nnnnMnnaw ii a 


■■■r:: ii ■■ -i 


UBinrnn: bb ;:;■■:: 


■in i o :■■' i ■■ 


■ ii3i : : ai . b 


BB III! II' !□ 


aa aaaa :: ■■ : 


nnBBnr:Bflflfl: : :n bb 


BncBBunBBBBna; :: a 


■■-'nun! :bbbbu3' o 


::h':':»:i:»ii inn 


nnir :: :BannBBBBn: i 


nn* aa ;:.:ii' :gbbbbg 


njnGBBDDBBnUBBBB 


M t-0 W *. Cn Oi <1 30 CC O — IZ) W 4- CH C5 



Fig. 44 represents a small, twill wale suitable for weav- 
ing stripes for trousering, or fancy suitings. There being 
more warp thrown to the face of the fabric than to the back, 
and more filling thrown to the back than to the face, it does 
away with that boldness commonly seen in plaids, caused 
by the filling showing too prominently. 

Fig. 45 represents the common eight-harness twill with 
a filling back, and is a good thing for medium, or heavy- 
weight fabrics. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 



113 



PPPBBBPPBPPB 


■■■pppbppbpp 


pppbbb"'bp. :■■ 


■■■PPPB! IID 


p: ipbbp: :■: bii 


■ ■a n ■ ::■ : 


nn* :■' ::■: ;: :■■■ 


■ ■■ ■ am : : 


i p«pn •!..'::■■■ 


bbppb ■■■nnn 


n bppbpppbbb 


bppbppbbb inn 


pbppbmpi ■!!■ 


■: ■ u pmbppp 


nn ■■■ bo 


ntMuPl BBBPPB 


■CDiMnrniPQ 


PbmpppbbM ■ i 


p; it ■■■pppbpb 


BBBPPPBBPPBP 



bbbbpppppbbbbpbpbp 
ub' -b: ibbbbppp: ■■■■ 

pbbbbppp - nBBBBPPPP 

BUBUBPBBBB. :pp: bob 

: ■■■■pppppbbbbppp 

bbpbpbpbbbbpppppbb 



pppbbbbj 


iPPPaMBBPII 


BBBPBPBP 


■BBBPPPPPB 


PPPPBBBB 


i: :P! pbbbbp 


laia i a 


:bbbbppppp 


pppppbbbb: :■. .i 


PBBBBPPP 


:: :■■■■:::: 


■PI IPPPBBBB 


ppbbbbpli 


PPI BBBB .P 


eb mi 


i .□nwiin 


p.ppbbbbpp 


bbbppppp 


■ IB! 1 Jin 


PPPPBBBBPPPPPBBBBP 



'iCS-)OOCOOH-ti»CONfa.C>iOi-^30 



HMM^Cia^GCCOh-tO 



Fig. 4G represents a diagonal of good appearance in 
light weights, either in solid colors, or fancy mixes; when 
made of the latter, a few threads of fancy colors, or of D. 
& T., dressed in the warp, will greatly add to the beauty of 
the fabric. The filling should be all of one color or mix. 

Fig. 47. Fig. 48. Fig. 49. 

bpbbpppppp 
■■pbpbbpbp 
pBjdBWDPPPP 
pbb.-bpbbpb 

Li. ■ BB 
BPBBPBPBBP 

PPPBPBBPi !P 
PBPBBPBPBB 
PPPPBPBMPP 

B B BB B B 

PPPPPB1.BBP 
BB B BB fl 

PPPPPPHPBB 
PBJBPBP0BP* 

bppppppbpb 
b bb ibpbbp 
■■ppppnPBP 
pbpbbpbpbb 
pbbupppp: m 

BBBB B :■ 

Fig. 47 represents a fancy diagonal figure, composed of 
small perpendicular cords, suitable for light-weight worsted 
coatings; or, for ladies' dress-goods of cotton warp, and fine 
single worsted filling. 

Fig. 48 represents a fancy diagonal figure, consisting 
of small bias cords with a rib effect; designed for suitings. 
in fine worsted yarns. 

Fig. 40 represents a pretty diagonal with a prominent 
filling cord. Warp of one color, and filling of another. 

Fig. 50. Fig. 51. 

DBPflnBPPPPBPBPBPBBBfl 
BPBPBJPPPBPBPBPBBBBP 

[ :■: b: : .. ■: a a. a aaaa a 
fl fljpp .:PflnflPflPflflflflrflP 

PBPPPPB .fl fl. BflflflPBPB 

■an: :: '■:.:■::■: :■■■■. b .an 
fEflPfll a bhbb a a a 
□' i:a ibpbpbbbbpbpb. a 
ppbpb: :■::■«■■: ;■:.:■' ana 
nn :■' :ar;BBBa: a wnainnp 
a a a aaaa a .bub::, 
pbpblibbbb: bgbpbppppb 
a mi aaaa a: .a bppppbp 
i a ibbb a a a ;: : a a 
a EiiBB a a a ;; ipi ifl: a ; 

PBBBBPBPBPBPPPPBPBPB 
BBBBPBPBPBP! IP'^BPBPBP 
BBBIIB fl IflPCPnfll fl I ■ 
BBuBPBPBI 1PPPBPBPBI Iflfl 
BPBPBPBPPPPBi ■ IflLlflflfl 



BPPPPPBBPPr IflflflflflPPflfl 

bbpppppbbpppbbbbbppb 
bbbpppppbb; i: i ibbbbbpp 
pbbbpp: in bbpppbbbbbp 
nPBflJMPi ipppbb: ippbbbbb 
■npflflflnni .'ppbbp: !□■■■■ 

BB' 'PBBBLII IPPPajBI IIIII BBB 
BBB BBB I . BB II I .BB 

BBBB I! BBB' I! IBB' I B 

BIBflfl I! BBB! IP] . .BBPOP 
I BBBBB BIB I ". BB 

PPBBBBBPPBBBPPPPPBBP 
PPPBBBBBPL BBBPPPPPBB 
fl I 'BBBBB I. .BBB. I.' I. II B 

■■on: ibbbbbppbbb* ini ipp 
riflfln: pabbbbp. .bbbippi: 

PPflBPPPBBBBBPPBBBPPP 
PEUPBBPPPBBBBBP ■■■: IP 

I ■ BB . ' 'BBBBB' ii BBB 

PPPPPBBPPPBBBBB ,'PBBfl 



*t-3CCUCnOi-*400:£>Oi- 1 tOW*.CnOi-*4ao:DO 



Fig. 50 represents a wide wale diagonal for cheviot suit- 
ings, made from all-wool coarse stock, in light weights. 
15 



114 



THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 



Fig. 51 represents a wide diagonal pattern; if produced 
in fine all-wool yarns of fancy mixes, and given a melton 
finish, it makes a desirable thing for business suitings, or 
light-weight overcoatings. 



Fig 



□e 



. 52. 

pi 



ippbtipp 
□BBBBBnnBBriBnBBnrjBna 
p; jbbbbb::i: jbb :b: :m«"ppbp 
□nnBBBBB: :: ■■ a ■■■nna 
B'ipnBBaBa' !::■■• :b :bb: :: 
■ aim i ■■■!!■ 
nn«nn[JBBBBB:xiBB;:BnBB 
■□□■□□i :i»».'uainini 
■■□n«inn«ji«B«nGBBnw i 

PflfllPflmnflflflflflPnflflPfl . 

b bb :: :b ' : iiaaa ■■ 

: ■ .BB"r;Bnn;jBBBBBauB* 

■ mnmuu m xxbbbbbpcb 

■ fluflPflflPUflPP. .flflflflflpp 

: :bb ;b :bb ■ ■ :: : .■■■■■ : 
. bb a bb " a :: bbbbb 

■ : ■■ ■ ■■ :b ' bbbb 

bb is b bb: ! ■□□! Ill 
■■■PPBB ■: BB IPB! EnM 
BBBB B B ■_■■_■_■ 



Fig. 53. 



. IPHHCfl: !. B BflflBiJ 

BBBB' :bbbb b :; b qbii : 

BB BBBB B I B Bill ill 

■i. ma i b aaaa iB 

: ■■■■.:■::■ bbbb bbbb 

■iii i b bbbb bbbb 

bbb b ijiiii iii! b 

■ BB. I I IIII llll I 

■ :■ : i aam nua an 

fl fl I B BBBB BBBB' .'BBB 

b: ::.:■: bbbb bbbb .ubbb . 
b a bbbb lais -imaa 
i.^b: :bbbb: ;BBflfl; :bbbbl;bi: 

IB BBBB BBBB BQBfl B I 
[ BBBB BBBB BBBB ■ □ ■ 

iaaa bbbb bsbb b a 
■ai ]igg aaiEi a a: b 



B BBBB BBBB B II fl BBB 

:b: j: i. ■■■ 



Fig. 52 represents a fancy diagonal for weaving worsted 
coatings, the same produced in a plaid pattern would make 
a good thing for fancy suitings. 

Fig. 53 represents a double-pick diagonal effect, for a 
piece-dyed fabric, highly finished. The warp should be of 
good fine stock, as two-thirds of it appears on the face; but 
a much poorer stock can be used to advantage in the filling. 



Fig. 54 



Fig. 55. 



JflPPMPPflMPflPPMPPMP 



IB E 



nin: ■■ ti aa a :: :■■ 

■an aa ; a bb : n 

PPBB BB B !■■□ BB BBB 

::' :ii' a aa : bb \: a in i 

aa : bb a " aa :: :aa: bbb :b 
bb ";• a aa: :: :■■ :: :a as a bb 
: inmu [■□□■■ : aa: bib b i 

r .a aa' : aa : ■ ■■■: :■■ : i 

■■nan II II BBB B BB 

laiin-HiniriiHnHJnii 
piplibb: :. :bb bbb b :: ao : i 
as ' bb' :; :■' bbb bb bb i 

ai : bb bbb a:.:, aa : aa 
PPBB : a bbb :■■ : :■■ n :■ i 
aa aa aaa !■□□■■□□■■! :a 
■an <■■■■:■■ 4i i m :■■: 
n ■■ ■■■ ■ aa aa b i 

b :bbb " ■■' r :■■' : ■ ■■ :: i 

■ ■PflflflPfl [□■■ II :■■' IIDDHt 

B :■■■ :■■' " 



. bb " :■■' : aa : :bb : ■■' ' 

ipbbp:";bb- :: aa u .■■xmi: 

B HB : BB BB [ BB ! :■! 

bb bb: : bb :: bb : bb: : i 



: b 
ifl : 
i ' 



:■' .■■: 







nnflflPPflfl::: bb : :bb 


' : up :■■ 


BPPflfl ': bb : bb : bbi 


■■ : ■■ : :«a \ :■■ 


d :pflflpp 


[!■■::: :bb ■■::■■■ 


:: ■■ '■ 


r aa ; aa ■■ ' ■ : 


bb :: :ba 


a ' as :bb : :■■■ 


■ fl. . BB ! 


aa :: aa :: :bbp b: : a 


■ BB 


aa I bb :: ■■■ : bb 


■ 1 ■ 


□i bb :. bb n fl- : ■■ 


: aa :: bb 


■: :: :■■ bbb ■■ 


bb: ii an , 












• bb .: '■■ 


■: : ■■■. ii :■■: : bb .: 


■aa □■■ I 


: ■■■ BB bb : BB 


; ■■:;::■ 


ppflppflfl: jPflfl: ;: '■■: 


■ ■. :: ■■ 






1CDOHISMJ 



■ppflflppflflppflflppflflppfll 

M t-3 W *> Qi O3M0DCO C ^r3u4-C"C;<IODCDOt- 



■: :: : 



Fig. 54 represents a pretty diagonal wale, with a basket 
effect, suitable for either worsted or common woolen yarns. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING 



115 



Fig. 55 represents an olcl-time design, used quite com- 
monly in weaving fine light-weight cassimeres for suitings, 
with a white or light mix warp and black filling. It makes 
a perfect cut-off in the pattern both ways. There are twen- 
ty-three harnesses and twenty -four bars; but if desired to 
have the pattern finish as square as possible, it can be 
turned side ways and woven with twenty-four harnesses and 
twenty-three bars; in which case the filling should be, at 
least, 1 run finer than the warp. 

Fig. 56. Fig. 58. 

pbpbpbxbxbppgbbb pbpbpppbpdppbbgb 

: b :■ ■ : ; . ieu xju pbcbpbppppbpbbpb. 

pb: :■: ■: :■■■: :: xb"B i ■: ■ ; :i :\ a i xjbb: ■ 

■;. bxbxbx: : bbbxbx bpbpppbxpx: bbxbx 

■-. hdi ii a ■■■! :. ici :bp bpbpbppppbpbbpbp 

bgb^bbb u : :■ '■□■D _ Hjinnnn* xpbbxbp 

pbxbx: ipbbbxb: '■: :■ T? 1Ci 57 Pbpppbxxx: bbpblb 

: bbbxxx: bx.bxb xm.ot. pbpbxpppbpbbxbcb 

lmm::c : ■ni.'Mi.'iDi bppppbpbpb pbxppi a: xxaa: ibpb 

■nn '■■■: ■ ■: :■: :an ppbpppbi :■ bxppbpppxbb: bxbp 

_;■■■: :n: :□■: ■: :■: ;x ; . ;■: ;. .; :xaa: ■ bgbpdppbpbbxb ad 

■i"!::anK:i"i"«--M xxxxaxa ■■ ■□nui:i::i ;: 11; ■□■□ 

ubbb: jbdbi :■: :■: a p; «p; :pbpbp Dixinnn. ■■can «ui 

■n xpbxbxbxxx: cjb bpppi bb-bp pbxi xi: 1 be b b a 

PB ■ b a: a ceb ■; ;bxbxbbp ppppbpppbbkb- bxb 

■□■: bpbpbi .a: 11 I bb pbpppbpbpp ppbpi xbbxbxbpbp 

'-jnm~m~m. .::::;. bbbpc ppppbbxbpb bppppbpbbpbxbpbx 

bpbpbpbxbbbxxxbp rj a a bb '.-.a ■■ 1 1 ig 

ljb a inn ini bbbxb bpppbpbppp pbppppbbpb: :■; :b: r 

pbpbpxxpbbb ;; xb pppbbpbpbp ppppbpbbpbcbpbpb 

pbpbpbbbi pdbpbpb pbpbxbbxxp ppbpppbjbcbpbpbpp 

bxbxbx; xbbbxbxbp Pppbpbppph b. xii ixbbi b: a a:: 

bx: bbb pppbxbp pxbbxbxbpp pppbxbbi :ii:i"H:ri 

a BBBPI ipgPBPB IBP b: a .bb :: a / bb. a a a: 

pbxpi ana n: b: a a ppbpbp: 'xbx ppppbbxbpb: b: i . a 

:■■■::::: a b"bxp pbbpbpbp; p ppbpbbpb: ~b bpbxp 

■■hppbpbpbpbpbpm pbpbbppppb wx: '■■;:■: ■' '■: : 

nnmnn bxb ibjpbp PBPBPPt ihpp pp; bb mi :a: :■: mean 

■■PPPPbpmpbppdpb bbpbpbpppp pbi bbpb: :b: 'b: ;bxi :p 

hpbpbpbpbpbpbmbp bpbbx1 i! x b' : pppbbxbxb b : tm 

bbxb bxbxbxbxpxb bpbpppbppp ppbb 'bxbxb pp □■□□ 

i: 'B' a: :■::: ibi : B"bxbppppb bgbbcb: b m\ wnoi 

XBXBPBXBPBBBPPPB GBBPPPPBPB PPMBnBPHPBPnPPBP 

BPB: BPBPBXPPBBBP PBPPPBPPPB PBBI !BI M: :BPPPBP! P 

■PBPBmriPPBBBnppp pbxbppppbb d» ■: a bxbppppb 

■PMPMPBBBPPPMl BP BBPPPPBPBP PBBPBPBPBPPPX.BPP 
PB ■ ■ -PX.BBB' B.XB I : 'BX XBX II I I ■ ■ 

uBXi :; ixbbbp! :: x:bxb bpbppppbbp bbb :bxbcbxxi :l :bp 

PB. ■■■"?■ 'BPBPB -,K fco ,«^»BS BB B B B B 

SBXBXP~BBB; BXB 'BP bxrxb. b X BX XXB 

PPBBBXX'PB. BXBP BXBXB BXBXXXXBXB 

bb :xr a: :bxbxb: :bp bpbxbi ibppppbppxb 

p pbbbxb: :b bx.bxb pbpbpbpppbppppbb 

bbb. :r; • -bpbpbp' -p: 1 pbxb: :bpbppppbpbb 

PP ini! VI M IB! 'BBB PBPBPBPLII iPBPPPBB 

BBB' 'BXBXBXBXB. :PP B B B ." :XBX X BB , 

PP'iPBPBXBPPPPBBB BXB' IB' B '[ :i I' 'fl! BBP 

BPBPBGBGBGBBBXXQ BPBPBPPPPBPPPBBP 

t-'tOCO.fckCOS-JCDtOOi— ' 10 CO .U Cn OS "— b3C*3.**Ci3S--JarCOO^t-C-C04-C"C; 

Fig. 56 represents a diagonal figure of a herring-bone 
rib effect, designed for coarse worsted yarns, soft twisted. 

Fig. 57 represents a small diagonal with a filling face, 
and is a good thing for using single silk, twisted with the 
filling, which will produce a silk mix effect for suitings. 



116 



THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 



Fig. 58 represents a diagonal wale of a filling-rib effect, 
designed for solid colors in black, brown, or blue, or with 
warp of one color and filling of another. 



Fig. 59. 



Fig. 60. 



dp^pbpppbppbbdi 
: pipbpppb: p:ibpibbpbbbbd 
npBDDPBPPBBPBBBPBBBBnp 
D«nnaa icmmo ■*■□■■■■□□□ 
■antwaniM BiBPBBiBPPnn 
■ ■■ ■«■■■■■ ' 3rw 
□pbpp«bpbbbpbbbbdpd:~bp 
□bdpbbpbbbpbbbbppp^bdp 

■ '■■' iaa am ::::: ■ 
nniinMi' ■■■■ f : " ■ : ■ 
pbbdbbbpbbbb idppbddpbp 

■ ■ hcib rrirr " : ■ :: ■ 

■ [■■■DBMBBananMnnnBnnB 
dbbbpbbbbpd' \pbpdpbppbb 
■■■'■■■■ mnn»nng«nn««n 
■■□■■innnna inrwi .pbbpb 
bpbbbbppppb' inngnnni«nBB 

■ ■■■ ii ■ ■ ■■ ■■■ 
■■■■2n" r Kminn>i' bbbp 

■ ■■. .: ■ ' '■: :: :■■' :■■■::■ 
bbppddbddpb' lpbb"'bbbpbb 
■anapBpnnBpnBBPi 



II II II1N BR 111 II 

□ a bbb^bbebbb pbb 

■ ii mil nil '■■: :■■" " in« 

■ as ami ib db : :■■' ■ 
bbpbbbb ■■. hi [■■m !□■■! l 
■■ ■■■■ bbpbb~d bbpbpp 
riiiian: ■■: ■■ ' : ■■ ■■ 

nan br bb :: :: an una 
bis pi bb 'hp.: :pbb^bbpb 
■■■nai' ■■' : n ii an re a 

BBBBBBBnHHBHBH 

■□■■^■■narBB! nnn bbi 

bbdbbpbbppdbb' !■■! hpfi ' 

■■' bbpppbb~bbpbbpbbbbd 

■i ii ii ii bbdi ii 

Bl ' 11 BR BB BB IRIR BR 

■ '■■' ]□ ir in hbb ni a 

■ ' '■■'■■''■■'■■■■-■■'■ 

■I ~ II II Dill BB BR 

BBPBBPBBPBRBW' 'IB 'll'l 

■ ---- - BB r- aB ■■■■PBBPBBDBB 
BB BBPBBDBBBBDBBPBBPPP 

r li ! 3 j 3 



lOS*«00»Oh*tOC 



i01*JCOCDC« 



Fig. 59 represents an evenly balanced diagonal wale for 
worsted coatings, in solid colors. 

Fig. 60 represents a handsome diagonal wale. A rich 
stripe effect can be produced with this weave by dressing 
the warp, 22 threads of right-hand twist and 22 threads of 
left-hand twist; both warp and filling of all one color. 



Fig. 61. 

ipppnnnB 

R ft BB3ER H 

bbbbp^dddpbb 

bpbpbbbbbpbp 

bbbdppdpdbbb 

i^iibbi a a 

■ ■ : : :bbbb 

B BBBBB N fl 

BPDP"DPBBBBB 

:in»ninini 
□nnnrinBBBBBB 
BBBflfl' a 'B' :a- 1 
dppddbbbbbbd 
■■■■:;■::■"■ ■ 
■■■■■■* id 
rbr b b h ii 
oddbbbbbbdpd 
bbpb' '■■::■■■ 
.; ■■■■■■nnnn 
■: '■' ■:■:■■■■ 
dbbbbbbddddd 
" b i i ibebi 
rbbbbb :: :: : 

H R R BBBBB 



□ 



Fig. 62. 

ibddd^bbb 

ibpbbbppp 
ibbpdpdbb 

IBB BHR 

RR R"R il PPB 

BBB BHR 

bbb~bbbdddd 
ddppbbbdbbb 
bbb bbb tip 
■dp: pbbb~bb 
■■■■■■ : 
■■: :: " ■■■ :a 

DHDBBBPBBB1 
■ ■■PP' "PBBIBIP 
PPPPBBBPBBB 
PBBBP r 'PBBB 
BPP r PBBBPBB 
BPBflfl ' ' ' BB 

bb: :: " m i 

bb bbb :p: 1PB 

BBB : ' ' BBB 
BBBPBBBPPPP 

i-Hj-SCCfcCnCl-^GC^COi-' 



Fig. 63. 



BBB^BBDBBB~PP r, PBBB"BBPB 
DPPBBB^BBPBBBBPBBPBBBPC 
II II III " III II 'IB 

PTBBB"BBPBBBBPBBPBBBPP 

■ urm ::■■■■■ bib 

dbbbdbbdbbbbpbbdbbbdddd 
■ ■ ■■■ " :■■■:■■: iiii 
bbbpbbpbbbbpbbpbbb' 'pppp 
bb' 'bbb~pp' "pbbbpbbpbbbbp 
sb rr bbbb bb bbb ' i 

BPBBBrTPr PPBBBPBBPBBBBPB 

bpbbpbbbbpbbpbbi " bl 
ppiib ibpbbibpib 

Bin T BBPBBBPPPPPBBB 
"DBBBPBBDBBBBPBBD 

ipbb: :BBBPD r "dpbbbd 

■BIIIBBBBRBB 

'Bl' 'IBB~P^PPBBB~B 
IRRBBBBBBRBH3 



bib: 



■: 
■ 
D 

P"bii: "■■: 
■■■■:■■ BBB 
□DDDBBB BB 1 

1—tCW^CJiOS-^lQC^C — l 



ID'T'BBBPI 
IBBPBBPBBB 

PPBBB^BBD 

ii' '■■: ■■■' ; 



5AOifl3*JQCXO^IO; 



Fig. 61 represents a diagonal rib, which can be used 
either single or combined with other weaves to a good ad- 
vantage for making fancy trouserings. It is a good weave 
to use alone for a herring-bone pattern, producing a sharp- 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 117 

point effect, by commencing on the sixth harness for the 
backward draw. A rib of any required size can be pro- 
duced on this principle by increasing the width of the filling 
float, or the warp wale, or both. 

Figs. 62 and 63 represent desirable weaves for three- 
color diagonals, the former being classed as a single diag- 
onal, and the latter as a double diagonal. This latter figure 
produced with a black warp and, blue and brown filling 
pick and pick, will show up a black double wale, while the 
filling will show one blue and one brown wale alternately, 
making an attractive pattern for coatings. The former fig- 
ure produced with a black warp and, two kinds of mixes for 
the filling pick and pick, makes a rich-looking pattern for 
either coatings or suitings. 

Having given a fair synopsis in the field of miscellane- 
ous weaves, we will now leave the subject, believing all has 
been said that is necessary in this direction. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

DESIGNING BROKEN TWILLS OR SATIN WEAVES. 

In satin weaves we do not see the prominent bias lines 
or twills which are seen in weaves of the regular twill or- 
der; hence, they present a smoother appearance on the face 
of the fabric, and thus are known as broken twills, although 
they are called perfect twills in the order of satin weaves. 

In the regular order of twills, the floating threads have 
the appearance of a series of small diagonal or bias ribs in 
the fabric; but when the succession of raising the harnesses 
is changed so as to raise them at intervals of one, two, three 
or more from each other, the twill is said to be broken; and 
the floating threads no longer run on a regular twill bias, 
but are variously changed, according to the interval of 



118 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

working the harnesses. In satin twills it will be found 
that some are perfect in respect to the intervals at which 
the harnesses can be raised, while others are imperfect in 
this respect. When the harnesses can be raised regularly, 
at intervals of one, two, three or more from each other, the 
twill is said to be perfect; but imperfect, when the number 
of harnesses does not admit of this arrangement. This will 
be illustrated by the following figures and observations. 

The smallest twill that can be broken is that of four- 
harnesses, which is sometimes called a satin twill, but is 
more properly called a satinet twill. 

Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 

Mann Mnnn 

nnMn nMnn 
naan ■ 

nnriM nnnM 

Figs. 1 and 2 represent the broken and regular satin 
twill respectively. The broken twill is laid out in the fol- 
lowing order: commencing with the first or top pick — No. 1 
harness, — we place a riser on the first harness; the second 
harness is passed, and another riser is placed on the third 
harness; the fourth and first harnesses are next passed, and 
the third riser is placed on the second harness; the third 
harness is now passed, and the fourth riser is placed on the 
fourth harness. This gives us the order of working the 
harnesses as 1, 3, 2, 4; consequently, in this order of weav- 
ing, the harnesses cannot be raised at equal intervals; and, 
therefore, is one of the imperfect twills. In the regular 
twill, we find that each harness is raised in its numeral 
order as 1, 2, 3, 4; consequently, is a perfect twill of the 
regular order. 

Fig. 3. Fig. 4. 

Mnnnn Mnntxi 

□nMna nnnMn 

irn~m nMnnn 
nMnnn ' ■ 

nnnan nnMnn 

Fig. 3 will be found to raise each alternate harness 
throughout the whole pattern, thus — 1, 3, 5, 2, 4. Fig. 4, to 
raise one and pass two without interruption, thus — 1, 4, 2, 
5, 3; consequently, the five-harness twill is perfect by each 
of these methods. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 119 

Figs. 5, 6 and 7 are subject to imperfections similar to 
that of four harnesses; the orders of working the harnesses 

Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. 

■dpppp • bppppp mppppp 

pppbpp □□■□□□ ; :□■: 1! 

pbpppp ppppbp pppphp 

pppphp phpppp pmpppp 

ppbppp PPPHPP PPPPPM 

PPPPCB PPPPP* PPPBPP 

h-toco^aias — t>5 CO 4i- Qi cs t— t-c « J- en OS 

being as follows: 1, 4, 2, 5, 3, 6; 1, 3, 5, 2, 4, 6; 1, 3, 5, 2. 
6, 4, respectively; consequently, are imperfect twills, al- 
though the two former ones present as perfect appearance 
as most any of the twills in the satin order. 

Fig. 8. Fig. 9. 

■PPPPPP BPPPPPP 

PPBPPPP 3PPBPPP 

PPPPHPP PPPPPPM 

PPPPPPB PPBPPPP 

PMPI 1! : IP PPPPPMP 

PPPBPPP PHPPPPP 

PPPPPMP PPPPMPP 



l-» M CC *> CJi 31 *-l 



Fig. 8 will be found to raise each alternate harness 
throughout the whole design, thus — 1, 3, 5, 7, 2, 4, 6. Fig. 
9, to raise one and pass two without interruption, thus — 1, 
4, 7, 3, 6, 2, 5; consequently, the seven-harness twill is as 
perfect as that of five harnesses. 

Fig. 10. 

■ppppppp 
pppbpppp 

ppppppbp 

PMPPPUPP 
PPPPHPPP 
□PnPPPPB 
PPHPPPPP 
PPPPPHPP 

("-tOCCfaCnCR-^OO 

Fig. 10 makes a perfect twill by raising one harness, 
and passing two without interruption either way of the de- 
sign, thus — 1, 4, 7, 2, 5, 8, 3, 6. This eight-harness twill 
is the smallest satin that can be woven on an even number 
of harnesses. 

Fig. 11. Fig. 12. 

mpppppppp mpppppppp 

pcmpppppp ppppmpppp 

ppppmpppp ppppppppm 

pppppcmpp pppmppppp 

ppppppppm pppupppmp 

pmppppppp ppmpppppp 

pppbppppp pppppphpp 

pppppmppp pmppppppp 

pppppppmp pppppmppp 

Fig. 11 is found to raise each alternate harness, thus — 
1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 2, 4, 6, 8. Fig. 12, to raise one and pass three, 
thus— 1, 5, 9, 4, 8, 3, 7, 2, 6. 



120 



THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 



Fig. 13 admists of raising one harness, and passing two 
without interruption either way of the design, thus — 1, 4, 7, 
10, 3, 6, 9, 2, 5, 8. 

Fig. 13. 



■ppppppppp 

:.■;:::■ : . 
ppppppmpp 
:: ;■ 
■ :. :, IP 
"IPBPPPP 

jnpnpnppBP 
pmpppppppp 
puppbppppd 
pppppppmpp 

— 1-0 CO *. Ci Oi ^I cc CO O 



Fig. 14. 

■pppppppppp 
pppbppppppp 
ppppppbpppp 

i ■ 

pmppph 
ppppbpppppp 

pp; :: :■: :: 

PPPPPPPPPPB 

PPBPPPPPPC 

pnpppHPPPPP 

PPPPPPPPBPP 



Fig. 15. 



■pppnpppppp 

pppEmpppppe 

iipbpp 

pbjpppppppp 
pppppHPnpnp 

PPPPPHP 

PPBPPPPDPPP 

3PBPPPP 

:: a 

":::■"•;; 

PPPPPPPMPPP 



Fig. 14 will be found to raise one harness, and pass 
two, thus— 1, 4, 7, 10, 2, 5, 8, 11, 3, 6, 9. Fig. 15, to raise 
one and pass three, thus — 1, 5, 9, '2, 6, 10, 3, 7, 11, 4, 8. 

Fig. 16. 



■ppppppppppp 
ppppphppppl 
ppppppppppbp 
3pbpppppppp 
ppppppppbppp 
PBPPnpppnnpp 
npppppBPi: 

□PPPPPPPPPPH 
PPPPMPPPPPPP 
PPPPPPPPPBPP 
PPBPPPPPPPPP 
PPPPPPPHPPPP 



ioa*40DtooHM 



Fig. 16 admits of raising one 
without interruption either way 
11, 4, 9, 2, 7, 12, 5, 10, 3, 8. 
Fig. 17. 



■pppppppppppp 
p qM pn 

jPDBPPPP 
PPPPPPHPPPPPP 

' ■ :;-' 
: : ■ . 
a 
■ 
■ : 
PUBPPPPPr 

PPPPPPBPPPPP 

■ 

PPPPPPPPPPPBP 

— WM*atOi-qcccOOMt-JiM 



Fig. 17 will be found to raise 
alternately, thus — 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 



harness, and passing four 
of the design, thus — 1, 6, 

Fig. 18. 

moooooooooodu 

♦PPHO<><X><>0<X><> 

<xxx>ppm<xxx><x> 
♦♦♦<><><><>pp*<x>-c> 
<^^<xxxx>ppm 
ppbo<xx><x><x><x> 
<xx>nn«<x>^6<><x> 

♦<x>^<k><x><>ppM<S 

PMO<XX>£^<S<X><>P 
<X>PPB^<XXXXXX> 
♦♦♦♦OPPB^O^O 
<XXXXXX>^P^B___ 

(-"tOCO^CnOS-^OO^O — tiCO 

one harness, and pass one 
11, 13, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 



121 



Fig. 18, to raise one and pass two, thus- 
6, 9, 12, 2, 5, 8, 11. By the use of other 
figure, the order of raising and passing 
more fully represented. Fig. 19 will he found to raise one 



-1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 3. 

characters in this 

the harnesses is 



Fig. 19. 

■ppppoppppppp 

.innnannnnr 

□□□□□□□□■□□" in 

ppppppppppppm 

pppBPPPPPPpnn 

□npnpnPBPPPnp 

□□npppppnpp«n 

r:. "■: ::"::: : :n; ;: 

□pppppBPaaana 

zippnpnnnnp«nn 

□■□nnnnnapppp 

ppppaBaaanaap 

ppppppppnapjn 

i-»to)cciu<cnos<ioo;©© — bico 



Fig. 20. 

■□□annnnnnmn 
pppppBpnnnppp 
□pane una •□■pa 
: □■papaaaappn 
caaappaBaaaaa 

pppphpppppppp 

:::::, * :r: ' 

□■□□nnnppQppp 
□□□□□□■□□□□□□ 
PPPPPPPnpppBp 

ppBoaapppapp 

□□□□PPPPBPPPP 



Fig. 21. 



■ppppnppppppa 
aapppPMaaaaaa 
anppnpppppppB 
pppupbppppppp 
□pppaappaaaaa 
ppppBPnpparaa 

PPPPPPUPPPBPP 
PCPBPPnppnPLX 
PPPPPPPPPBPPP 

nnappppppaaac 
ppppppppbppco 
□■□pppppppapp 

PPPPPPPHPPPPP 

h-t-CCO.fa.CnCS^ICr: tCOHj-0« 



harness, and pass three, thus — 1, 5, 9, 13, 4, 8, 12, 2, 6, 10. 
Fig. 20, to raise one and pass four, thus — 1, 6, 11, 3, 8, 13, 5. 
10, 2, 7, 12, 4, 9. Fig. 21, to raise one and pass five, thus — 
1, 7, 13, 6, 12, 5, 11, 4, 10, 3, 9, 2, 8. Thirteen harnesses have 
a larger number of arrangements for satin weaves, than 
any other number of harnesses used in this order. 
Fig. 22. Fig. 23. 



■mppppppppppp 
i ippmoc ptipppppp 
papnppBnpppppp 
ztnpppppppBPPm 

■ 
PHLippppppnppr 

laaBPaaaaaaaa 
ppp: ;■■::'■ : ;: :: :n: ; 
ppppppnnppBPPP 
aaapppapappppB 
ppHPpnnappppp: 
pppppHPPPPnnpn 
□paaaaan«aaapp 
ppppp^pznnniinp 



■□□□pppppppppp 

□PPPPBPPPPPPPP 

ppppppppppBPnn 

□ MPuP 
PPPPPPBPPPDPPP 

pannpppppppBPP 

" ■ : 

::: ;• :□□■:::. . :ni :r; 

PPPPPPPPPPPPBP 

pppHnpppnppppn 
□ppppappBpnppp 

pppppppp- innnp* 
□aaaMaaaaaariPP 

PPPPPPPPPBPPPP 

•— to co .t oi as -j c© cc © >— ic> co 4- 



Fig. 



22 will be found to raise one harness, and pass two. 
thus— 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 3, 6, 9, 12. Fig. 23, to 
raise one and pass four, thus — 1, 6, 11, 2, 7, 12, 3, 8, 13. 
4, 9, 14, 5, 10. 

Fig. 25. 



Fig. 24. 



■pppnnnpnnnnnnn 
ppbpp "lanapppapi: 
□aaPBPnnppppppa 
-inpaaapppppppa 
□aanaacPMPPPnpp 

:tappa«ppp 
uppp: i "jppBaa 

npppppnppppppPB 

□■■"'□PP'^CPLMPPnC 

■ 
□□□□□■~apc 
□paaaaaMaanpppp 
ppnnppppnHPP':":" 

iPPPPPPMPPP 

ppQPann;: fngyoagg 

•—taco*uoias<icio^© — iico^-OT 

16 



■PPPPPPPPPPPOPP 

□□□□■□□nan 
ppppppppBpaaapa 
: ■ □ 
cmppp- ippp- ;paapa 
naapa ■□□□□□□□□□ 
□□□□□□□aa«apppa 

• ; ■ 

i ■:;:■;::: : 

ppppppBpnpnnaaa 
pppaapppppBPL 
pp innni hppppb 
□□□■□paapapappp 
^pbppppppp 
ppppppppppphpup 

h- 1-0 CO tU Oi OS — 1 CO CD O r* to CO -U Ci 



Fig. 26. 

■pppppppppppppp 
aaaaanp«aaaapi.ii 
pnppnpppppppppM 
□rinappHPnuppppn 
rinannppppppppMa 
pppppMPPPnnr: 
ppppnpppnppnBnp 
upppbpppppppppo 
ppppppppc: :■: ic 
pppBPPnppppppaa 

:: ■ 
:]!:■;;;• \\ : r ;. tPi in; : 
naarJuaaaaBPPPni: 
phiippppppppi: 
□aaappppBPPPPPP 

HMM^CT»MIX»OHtC&S4iCi 



122 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

Fig. 24 will be found to raise one harness, and pass one 
alternately, thus— 1. 3, 5, 7. 9, 11. 13, 15, 2, 4. 6, 8, 10, 12, 14. 
Fig. 25, to raise one harness and pass three, thus — 1, 5, 9, 13 
2. &, H>, 14. 3, 7. 11, 15, 4. 8, 12. Fig. 26, to raise one and 
pass six. thus— 1. 8, 15, 7, 14. 6, 13, 5, 12, 4, 11, 3, 10, 2, 9. 

Having illustrated all of the satin weaves from five to 
fifteen harnesses, we will now demonstrate more clearly the 
basis on which satin weaves are originated. 

RULE FOR DESIGNING SATIN WEAVES. 

Divide the number of harnesses into two parts, which 
must not be equal, nor one number a multiple of the other; 
now take one of the numbers to count off by. or add it. 
Commencing to add or count off from Xo. 1 harness and 
first pick, we place a riser at the end of each counting off 
or addition, and continue in this manner until each warp 
thread or harness is occupied by one riser. 

Illustration": Five-harness weave. 2-f-3 = 5. Com- 
mencing with one and adding two points in succession, we 
get as follows: l-|-2=3-h2=5-f-2=7 or 2, and 2+ 2=4. This 
will give us the order of raising the harnesses, thus — 1, 3, 5, 
2, 4. as represented in Fig. 3. If we count off or add three 
instead of two, we get as represented in Fig. 4. 

In designing satin weaves of an even number of har- 
nesses, such as S. 10, 12, 14. etc.. the following rule may be 
used, if preferred, in place of the former one: Divide the 
number of harnesses by 2, and if the quotient is an even 
number, subtract 1 : if the quotient is an uneven number, 
subtract 2; and, in either case use the remainder for adding 
or counting off. 

Illustrations: Eight-harness weave, 8-=-2=4, which 
is an even number: subtract 1, thus 4 — 1 = 3 for counting 
off. Ten-harness weave. 10-r-2=5, which is an uneven 
number: subtract 2. thus 5 — 2=3 for counting off. Twelve- 
harness weave. 12-^-2=6 — 1=5 for counting off. Fourteen- 
harness weave, 14-^-2=7 — 2 = 5 for counting off. Also 14-1-2 
= 7 — 2=5, and 5 — 2=3 for counting off. Therefore, both 5 
and 3 can be used in this case, thus producing two weaves. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 123 

Satin weaves are used both ways, that is to say, with 
the filling up, as represented in the preceding figures; or, 
with the warp up, as represented in the following Figs. 27 
and 28. The former method is called a filling face; the 
latter method is called a warp face. 

Fig. 27. Pig. 28. 



■■■■ ■■■ 



■ ■■■■ ■ 

■■■■■■■ 

■ ■■i 



■■■■: ■■■■ 
■ ■■■■ :■■ 
■■■»■■■ 



■■■■ ■■ ■ ■ 
■■■: mi ■ 
a ■■■■ «■■ 

■ ■■■ ■ ■■■ | 

■■ ■■■■ ■■ 
. ■■■■ ■■■■ 
■■■ ■ ■■■ ■ 

■ : '■■■■: ■■■ 

■■■■■■ ■■ 

v- ii ;c a- Gn c- -i ac ^ © 



If we want a five-harness satin with a filling face, and 
the twill to show as prominent as possible, we have to use 
Fig. 4. On the other hand, if we want a warp face with a 
distinct twill effect, we have to use Fig. 27, which is Fig. 3 
enlarged to ten threads and transposed, that is, we call the 
risers, sinkers; and call the sinkers, risers. If a smoother 
face is required, more after the doeskin style, we have to 
use Fig. 28, which is Fig. 4 enlarged and transposed as ex- 
plained before. This method holds good in using any other 
of the satin weaves for twill or smooth-face effects, or in 
transposing from a filling to a warp face. 

If we increase the number of risers in a satin weave by 
placing one at the right or left, above or below, or a short 
distance on a bias from each of the original risers, we get a 
sub-division of satin weaves, which are classified under 

' 'double satin weaves." 

This class of weaves being stitched twice as often as those 
of the single class, so to speak, will naturally increase the 
strength of the fabric. If we want a double weave, filling 
face, we raise each warp thread next to the one already 
raised in the original weave. If we want a double weave, 
warp face, we arrange to hold each warp thread down once 
more after being already down in the original weave; or, in 
other words, when a harness is down it remains down for 
two picks instead of one. 

Fig. 29 represents the eight-harness satin, filling face, 



124 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

doubled in the manner explained. In this weave we find 
that instead of the filling floating over 7 and under 1, it 
floats over 6 and under 2 warp threads; while the warp, in- 
stead of being 1 up, 7 down, is changed to 1 up, 4 down, 1 
up, 2 down. 

Fig. 29. Fig. 30. 

■#pppppp □■■■■<>■■ 

pppb#-ppp ompuh 

PPPPPPBt ■■■<>■■□■ 

□■♦nnnr.jn ■ ■■■■ ■ 

ppppb#pp ■<>■■-■■■ 

*□□□□□□■ ■■■»■■ 

ppm*pppp ■■::■■■■-> 

pppppb#p ■■ ; ■■: ■■ 

Fig. 30 represents the eight-harness satin, warp face, 
arranged on the double principle. In this weave it will be 
seen, as before stated, that the original points for stitching 
are down once more, or twice in succession continuously. 
If it is required to have the twill of the fabric show a more 
prominent streight-line effect, we arrange the weave so 
that each warp thread or harness is down for three picks in 
succession, as represented in Fig. 31. This principle of ar- 
ranging double satin weaves, warp face, will hold good on 
any number of harnesses. 

Fig. 31. Fig. 32. Fig. 33. 

■□□□□#>□□ *n#na#aa 

#>pphpppp fat ■ ♦ 

□□□#DP«P ♦DEMMXMQ 

pbpppp*p □■□♦□□♦a 

□■♦□□Mann ♦. ■ ♦ 

:;♦:.■ ♦ ♦ ■ 

ppbpppp<§> ppbp ♦;:"■♦■ 

pp#pp«pp ♦ :.:ph: ♦ 



: b ■■ ■■ 


♦■■Pl ■■ 


■ ■ ■■ ■ 


■ ';■'■■ >■ 

■ ■■-„■■ 

■ ■■ UP 


■ ■::■ ■■ , 

■■<>■■□■•.,• 



>— iccca-ino^icc 



Another principle for arranging satin weaves, is to 
change the annex points from right to left, to up or down 
as represented in Figs. 32 and 33, for a filling face. 

Fig. 34. Fig. 35. Fig. 36. 

■pp#ppppp mpppppppp#pp ■pppp<#>ppppppppp 

ppbpp#ppp pp*ppbpppppp pppphpppp<*.ppppp 

::■::::♦ : pppph : ♦:.:.«, pppppppphpppp<*p 

♦PPPPPHPP #PP*PPPPPPPP PP#-PCjPPPPPPPMP3 

jP#PPPPPB 3P4PPBPPP PBPPPP40PPPPPPP 

PMPP#PPPP PHPPPPPPPP#P PPPPPBPPPP#PPPP 

PPPMPP#PP PPP4PPBPPPPP PPPPPPPPPBPPPP4- 

PPPPPMPP# PPPPPPPP'tPPB PPP*prPPPPPPPHP 

'■♦■PPPPPBP PtPPBPPPPPPP :IPBPPPP<%PPPP"PP 

-u^.-o.ssoos ppppnD*ppBpn ppppppMPPPP#>pn 
PPMPPPP-ppp# ♦;;;:: pppppb 

PPPP#PPBPPPP PPPP^PPPPPPPPPB 

HHU<.«a-»'J>OHS UPBPPP' >PPPPPP 

PPPPPPPM" PPP#PP 

♦ I! :ppppppp»ppp 

The next and last principle of designing double satin 
weaves, to which we wish to call the reader's attention, is 



TEXTILE DESIGNING, 125 

to arrange the additional points for stitching, sideways <on 

a bias at a certain regular distance from each original point 

In the single weave, as represented in Figs. 34, 35 and 36. 

This order of weaving may be reversed for warp face, in 

the manner illustrated before. 

Satin weaves are used quite extensively in producing 

color effects for stripes. If we dress a warp of two colors, 

1 and 1 alternately, and weave it a five-harness satin, warp 

face, we get a double-line effect as visible in the fabric as 

seen in the design, Fig. 37. A similar effect will be visible 

in stripes containing various number of threads and colors. 

Fig. 37. 
;♦«!♦■ h»**pppppppppp 

■ ♦:♦■♦■ ■♦pmpppppppp 

■ ♦■♦: :«■♦■ . pi :pppupppp 

■ ■♦■♦p«b>pppppppppp 

■ ♦■ ' ■♦■♦dmj; :pppppppp 
□■♦■■♦■■■ m*b*pppppppppp 
■<§>; :*■♦■ h*pppppppppp 

■ ♦<■<♦ pf e ♦ b^-pppppppppp 

■ ■ ♦ ■ ♦ p ♦ ■ ♦ p: :n: :pplp :pp 
b»m ■♦■♦□■♦•□□□! ipppppp 

pppppppppppppppppppp 
pppppppppppppppppppp 
pppppppppppppppppppp 
pppppppppppppppppppp 
pppppppppppppppppppp 
pppppppppppppppppppp 
pppppppppppppppppppp 
pppppppppppppppppppp 
pppppppppppppppppppp 

The beginner may get a better view of any one or all of 
the preceding figures, by drawing them off on design paper 
and enlarging the design both ways, in the manner repre- 
sented by the last figure. 

We will now close these observations on designing satin 
weaves, after calling attention to one other point, that is. 
the selecting of the proper weave for the contemplated fab- 
ric. This depends on the number of ends in warp, picks per 
inch, and the size and quality of both warp and filling yarns 
to be used in the fabric. Consequently, if we use a weave 
having a too-long float for the "layout," we get a fabric of 
a loose and spongy feeling. On the other hand, if we put 
too many ends in the warp, we cannot get enough picks in 
the fabric, hence we get an open, thread-bare appearance, 
without proper strength the filling way. Therefore, it will 
be observed that, great care should be used when selecting 



126 



THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 



the weave, otherwise it may be entirely unsuitable for the 
contemplated fabric by having either too long or too short 
stitching. The necessity of good judgment must be appar- 
ent in connection with this branch of designing if we 
would obtain the best results. 



CHAPTER XX. 

YARN TABLES, RULES AND CALCULATIONS. 

Table Showing the Number of Yards Pek Pound of Woolen Yarn 
From % Run to 20 Runs. 



Runs. 


Yards per lb. 


Runs. 


Yards per lb. 


Runs. 


Yards per lb. 


Runs. 


Yards per lb. 


H 


400 


5% 


8400 


io% 


16400 


15V| 


24400 


% 


800 


b}4 


8800 


10J4 


16800 


15^ 


24800 


% 


1200 


5% 


9200 


10% 


1 7200 


15% 


25200 


1 


1600 


6 


9600 


11 


17600 


16 


25600 


iH 


2000 


6M 


100O0 


1IM 


18000 


16% 


26000 


04 


2400 


6 l » 


1040(1 


l\% 


18400 


10 '., 


26400 


i% 


2S00 


6% 


10800 


11^ 


18800 


10% 


26800 


2 


3200 


7 


11200 


12 


19200 


17 


27200 


2% 


3600 


7% 


11600 


12% 


19600 


17% 


27600 


2>| 


4000 


1% 


12000 


12i., 


20000 


17^ 


28000 


2% 


4400 


7% 


12400 


\m 


20400 


17% 


2S400 


3 


4S00 


8 


12800 


13 


20800 


18 


28800 


3% 


5200 


*H 


13200 


1314 


21200 


18% 


29200 


3 l A 


5600 


sv 2 


13600 


13^ 


21600 


\%% 


29600 


3% 


6000 


8% 


14000 


13% 


22000 


18% 


30000 


4 


6400 


9 


14400 


14 


32400 


19 


30400 


4% 


6800 


9% 


14800 


14% 


22SOO 


19% 


30800 


*% 


7200 


9% 


15200 


\±% 


23200 


19 % 


31201 


4% 


7600 


9% 


15600 


14% 


23600 


19% 


31601 


5 


8000 


10 


16000 


15 


54000 


20 


32001 



This table will be found a ready-assistant in yarn calcu- 
lations, as it gives the length in yards per pound of any size 
thread, from one-fourth run to twenty runs, by fourths. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 



127 



Table Showing the Number of Yards Per Pound of 
Worsted Yarn From No. 1 to No. 120. 



Number. 


Yards per lb. 


Number. 


Yards per lb. 


Number. 


Yards per lb. 


1 


560 


41 


22960 


81 


45360 


2 


1120 


42 


23520 


82 


45920 


3 


1680 


43 


24080 


83 


46480 


4 


2240 


44 


24640 


84 


47040 


5 


2800 


45 


25200 


85 


47600 


6 


3360 


46 


25760 


86 


48160 


7 


3920 


47 


26320 


87 


48720 


8 


4480 


48 


26880 


88 


49280 


9 


5040 


49 


27440 


89 


49840 


10 


5600 


50 


28000 


90 


50400 


11 


6160 


51 


28560 


91 


50960 


12 


6720 


52 


29120 


92 


51520 


13 


7280 


53 


29680 


93 


52080 


14 


7840 


54 


30240 


94 


52640 


15 


8400 


55 


30800 


95 


53200 


16 


8960 


56 


31360 


96 


53760 


17 


9520 


57 


31920 


97 


54320 


18 


10080 


58 


32480 


98 


54880 


19 


10640 


59 


33040 


99 


55440 


2() 


11200 


60 


33600 


100 


56000 


21 


11760 


61 


34160 


101 


56560 


22 


12320 


62 


34720 


102 


57120 


23 


12880 


63 


35280 


103 


57680 


24 


13440 


64 


35840 


104 


58240 


25 


14000 


65 


36400 


105 


58800 


20 


14560 


6Q 


36960 


106 


59360 


27 


15120 


67 


37520 


107 


59920 


28 


15680 


68 


38080 


108 


60480 


29 


16240 


69 


38640 


109 


61040 


30 


16800 


70 


39200 


110 


61600 


31 


17360 


71 


39760 


111 


62160 


32 


17920 


72 


40320 


112 


62720 


33 


18480 


73 


40880 


113 


63280 


34 


19040 


74 


41440 


114 


63840 


35 


19600 


75 


42000 


115 


64400 


36 


20160 


76 


42560 


116 


64960 


37 


20720 


77 


43120 


117 


65520 


38 


21280 


78 


43680 


118 


66080 


39 


21840 


79 


44240 


119 


66640 


40 


22400 


80 


44800 1 


120 


67200 



1 28 



THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 



Tablet Showing the Number of Yards Per Pound of 
Cotton,, or Spun-Silk Yarn From No. 1 to No. 90.. 



Vmnber. 


Yards per lb. 


Number. 


Yards per \h>. 


Number, 


Yards per lb». 


1 


840 


31 


26040 


61 


51240 


2 


1680 


32 


26880 


62 


52080 


3 


2520 


33 


27720 


63 


52020 


4 


3360 


34 


28560 


64 


537<lo 


5 


420O 


35 


29400 


65 


54600 


6 


5040 


36 


30240 


66 


55400 


; 


5880 


37 


31080 


67 


56280 


8 


6720 


38 


31920 


68 


57120 


9 


7560 


39 


32760 


69 


57960 


[«) 


8400 


40 


33600 


70 


58800 


11 


9240 


41 


34400 


71 


59640 


12 


10080 


42 


35280 


72 


604SO 


13 


10920 


43 


36120 


73 


61320 


14 


11760 


44 


36960 


74 


62160 


15 


12600 


45 


37800 


75 


63000 


16 


13440 


46 


38640 


76 


63840 


17 


14280 


47 


39480 


77 


64680 


18 


15120 


48 


40320 


78 


65520 


19 


15960 


49 


41160 


70 


66360 


20 


16800 


50 


42000 


80 


67200 


21 


17640 


51 


42X40 


81 


68040 


22 


1S480 


52 


43680 


82 


68880 


23 


19320 


53 


44520 


83 


69720 


24 


20160 


54 


45360 


84 


70560 


25 


21000 


55 


46200 


85 


71400 


26 


21840 


56 


4704!) 


86 


72240 


27 


22680 


57 


47880 


87 


73080 


28 


23520 


58 


48720 


88 


73920 


29 


24360 


59 


40560 


89 


74760 


30 


25200 


60 


50400 


90 


75600 



N. B. — 840 yards represents one number of cotton, or 
spun-silk yarn; therefore, this table will apply correctly 
for yarn calculations in either case. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 



129 



Table Showing Equivalent Numbers by the Run, Cut 

and No. System, for Woolen, Worsted, 

Cotton and Spun-Silk Yarns. 



Yards per 
Pound. 



1000. 

•2400. 

2800. 

3600. 

4800. 

5GO0. 

6000. 

7200. 

8400. 

9600. 
10800*. 
11200. 
12000. 
13200. 
14000. 
14400. 
15600. 
16800. 
18000. 
19200. 
19600. 
20400. 
21600. 
22400. 
2280!). 
24000 . 
25200. 
26400. 
27600. 
28000. 
2SS00. 
30000 . 
30800. 
31200. 
32400. 
33600. 



Woolen 

Svst« in, 

Runs. 



\\ I en 
Svsb in, 

Cut . 



Worsted 
System, 



1 

n 
i| 

2i 

*> 
O 

3i 

31 

44 
5]- 
6 
6| 

7 

n 

8i 

8| 

9 

9| 

10.!.- 

11* 

12 

m 

12f 

13* 

14 

141 

15 

15f 

16* 

17i 

17i 

18 

18f 

104 

19* 

294 
21 



6 1 
10 

HI 

15 

20 

23* 

25 

30 

35 

40 

45 

46| 

50 

55 

58^ 

60 

65 

70 

75 

80 

81| 

85 

90 

93* 

95 
100 
105 
110 
115 
116| 
120 
125 
128 h 
130 
135 
140 



^ 

5 
6| 

84- 

10 

10f 

12^ 

15 

174 

19f 

20 

21f 

23* 

25 

25f 

27f 

30 

321 

34f 

35 

36f 

38^ 

40 

40f 

42f 

45 

474 

49f 

50 

61| 

534 

55 

55| 

57f 

60 



Cotton 

System , 

Nos. 



24 

3* 

if 
54 

74 

84 
10 

lit 
124 

13* 

14| 
154 
16* 

174 

184 

20 

214 

224 

23^ 

24f 

254 

26 1 

274 

284 

30 

314 
306. 

344 

304 

36f 
374 
384 

40 



Spun Silk 
Svstera, 

Nos. 



1« 

24 

3* 

44 

54 

6* 

n 

84 
10 
114 

124 
13* 

144 

154 

16$ 

174 

184 

20 

214 

224 

23* 

244 

254 

26§ 

274 

284 

30 

314 

324 

33* 
344 
354 

36| 

374 
384 
40 



N. B. — In this table we give such numbers only as come the nearest, 
to whole numbers in woolen cats and worsted numbers per pound. 

17 



130 



THE SELF-IXSTRUCTOR, 



Table Showing the Weight in Grains of 50 Yards of Woolen 
Yarn, From 1 Run to 20% Runs. 



Runs. 


Grains. 


Runs- 


Grains. 


Runs. 


Grains. 


Runs. 


Grains. 


Runs. 


Grains. 


1 


2 18. 7.-, 


5 


43.75 | 


'.» 


24.305 


13 


16.827 


17 


12.868 


1% 


11)4 445 


5% 


• 42.682 


9% 


23.972 


13% 


16.6671 


17% 


12.774 


1% 


175. 


5% 


41.667 


9% 


23.648 


13% 


16.51 


17% 


12.6S1 


i% 


159 09 


5% 


40.698 


9% 


23.334 


13% 


16.355 


17% 


12.59 


3'-_- 


1 15 833 


5% 


39.773 


'•"■> 


23.026 


13'., 


16.204 


17% 


12.5 


1% 


i;;i 615 


5% 


3S.889 1 


9% 


22.727| 


13% 


16.055 


17% 


12.411 


1% 


125. 


5% 


38.043 


9% 


22.436 


13% 


15.932 


17% 


12.324 


y. 


116.687 


5% 


37.234 


9% 


22.152 


m 


15.766 


17% 


12.238 


2 


109.375 


6 


36.458 


10 


21.875' 


14 


15.625 


18 


12.153 


2% 


102.941 


6% 


35.714 


10% 


21.605 


14% 


15.4S7 


18% 


12.069 


2% 


97.223 


,;L 4 


35. 


1034 


21.341 


14% 


15.351 


18% 


11.986 


2% 


92.105 


o% 


34.314 


10% 


21.084 


14% 


15.217 


1*% 


11.905 


2% 


87.5 


6% 


33.(154 


10)4 


20.833 


14'., 


15.086 


18% 


11.824 


2% 


83.334 


6% 


33.019 


10% 


20.588 


14% 


14.957 


18% 


11.745 


m 


79.545 


6% 


32.412 


10% 


20.340 


14% 


14.S31 


18% 


11.667 


2% 


76.0S7 


6% 


31.818 


10% 


20.115 


14% 


14.706 


18% 


11.589 


3 


72.915 


7 


31.25 


11 


19.886 


15 


14.583 


19 


11.513 


3% 


70. 


7% 


30.702 


U% 


19.663 


15% 


14.453 


19% 


11.438 


3% 


67.308 


7% 


30.172 


n% 


19.445 


15% 


14.344 


19% 


11.364 


3% 


64.815 


1% 


29.661 


n% 


19.231 


15% 


14.228 


19% 


11.3 


3% 


62.5 


7% 


29.166 


11% 


19.022 


15', 


14.113 


19% 


11.218 


3% 


60.345 


7% 


28.688 


n% 


18.817 


15% 


14. 


19% 


11.147 


3% 


58.334 


7% 


28.226 


n% 


18.617 


15% 


13.889 


19% 


11.076 


3% 


5(1.452 


7% 


27.778 


n% 


18.421 


15% 


13.78 


19% 


11.007 


4 


54.687 


8 


27.344 


12 


18.229 


16 


13.672 


20 


10.938 


m 


53.03 


8% 


26.923 


12% 


18.041 


16% 


13.566 


20% 


10.87 


4% 


51 .47 


8% 


26.515 


12% 


17.857 


16% 


13.461 


20% 


10.803 


4% 


50. 


m 


26.119 


12% 


17.677 


16% 


13.359 


20% 


10.736 


4% 


48.612 


8% 


25.735 


12% 


17.5 


16% 


13.258 


20% 


10.67 


4% 


47.297 


8% 


25.362 


12% 


17.327 


16% 


13.158 


20% 


10.606 


4% 


40.052 


m 


25. 


12% 


17.157 


16% 


13.06 


20% 


10.542 


4% 


44.872 


8% 


24.648 1 


12% 


17. . 


16% 


12.963 


20% 


10.479 



Note. — This table will be found more convenient, and in several 
instances more accurate, than that published in our former work, owing 
to giving the eighths of runs, and the decimals having been carried out 
to the third figure ; aud in many instances the last figure of the decimal 
has been increased one, for in these calculations it is better always to 
figure on the heavy side. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 131 

The above table is to facilitate finding the weight of 
double and twist, when two or more threads are twisted to- 
gether; for instance, suppose we wish to make a three-ply 
twist from yarns spun of, 5| and 8f runs respectively, what 
would be the size of the three-ply thread? 

Example: 
1 thread of 3f runs — 58.334 grains. 
1 thread of 5i runs = 41.667 grains. 
1 thread of 8f runs = 25. grains. 



Answer, 125.001 grains = If run. 
By referring to the grains column, it will be seen that 
the sum 25.001 grains is equal to If run. Now this If run 
is the combined weight of the three threads when folded, 
but not twisted together; hence this three-fold thread when 
given a medium twist, will weigh somewhat heavier, as it 
takes up more or less in the act of twisting, so we will make 
an allowance of \ run and call the twisted thread 1| run. 
If a slack twist, of only four or five turns per inch, is given 
the thread, an allowance of | run will be sufficient, while 
if hard twisted, | or even | run may be allowed. Of course 
this allowance must be governed wholly by judgment, ac- 
cording to the quality of stock and the amount of twist to 
be given it, both in spinning and twisting. The exact size 
of the D. & T. can be found after twisting by weighing fifty 
yards, say five yards from each of ten bobbins; therefore, 
the above is calculated only for previous estimates concern- 
ing the original size to spin the yarns for the twist. 

Rules to Find the Size of Different Yarns, by Grains, 
Without Reference Tables. 

1G00 yards of 1 run yarn weighs just one pound Avoir- 
dupois or 7000 grains troy. Divide 1600 by 50, or any other 
number of yards used for a weighing, then divide 7000 by 
the quotient, and the quotient obtained will represent the 
weight in grains of 50 yards— or whatever number of yards 
weighed — of 1 run yarn. 

Thus, 1600 -7- 50 = 32, And 7000 -h 32 = 218.75 grains. 



132 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

Now take 218.75 grains for a dividend, the weight of a 
weighing for a divisor, and the quotient will represent the 
number of runs. For example, we will presume that the 
weighing weighs 35 grains. 

Thus, 218.75 ~ 35 = 6.25, or 6i runs. 

Another method of calculating woolen yarns is as fol- 
lows: 7000 -J- 1600 = 4f grains, the weight of one yard of 
1 run yarn; hence the number of yards required to weigh 
4f grains will represent the number of runs. Thus, if it 
takes 5^ yards to weigh 4| grains, the yarn would be 
5| runs. 

For a standard weight in worsted yarns, divide 7000 by 
560, which gives us 12^ grains as the weight of one yard of 
No. 1 yarn; consequently, as many yards as it takes to 
weigh 12| grains, so many numbers of 560 yards each will 
be required to weigh one pound. 

For a standard weight in cotton, or spun-silk yarns, we 
divide 7000 by 840, which gives us 8£ grains as the weight 
of one yard of No. 1 yarn; therefore, as many yards as it 
takes to weigh 8£ grains, so many numbers of 840 yards 
each will be required to weigh one pound. 

Rule to Find the Number of a 2 or 3-Ply Thread, in 
Worsted and Cotton Yarns. 

A 2-ply thread is numbered according to the single num- 
bers: thus, 2-ply No. 60's twisted together would equal, or 
is called No. 30's; but in order to be what it is called, the 
single threads would have to be somewhat finer than 60's, 
because in twisting, after being doubled, the yarn takes up 
more or less in length, which really makes the thread of 
twist heavier or coarser than it appears. 

Again, suppose two threads of different sizes are to be 
twisted together, one of No. 60's and one of No. 4(Vs, then 
proceed in the following manner: Multiply one number by 
the other number, and divide the result by the sum of the 
two numbers. Thus, 60 X 40= 2400 

' 2400-H00=24's, number 
60+40= 100 ' 
of the double thread. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 133 

To find the number of a 3-ply thread when composed of 
the same numbers. Divide one of the single numbers by 
the number of ply: thus, 3-ply No. 90's equals No. 30's, and 
4-ply No. 100's equals No. 25's. 

Again, suppose three threads of different sizes, say No. 
20's, No. 40's and No. 80s, are to be twisted together, then 
the number of the 3-ply thread is found as follows: Divide 
the highest number by each of the other numbers and also 
by itself, after which divide the sum of the quotients into 
the highest number. Thus, 

8(H-20=4 ) 

80-4-4C=2 \ 80-5-7=11^8, number 

8C-J-8C=1 ) of the 3-ply thread. 

The sum of the quotients is 7 
This rule will answer when any number of threads of vary- 
ing sizes are twisted together. It will also answer for cal- 
culating woolen yarns by the run, but owing to the small 
numbers and the fractions which are used in that system, it 
is seldom brought into play when figuring woolen runs. 

Rule to Estimate the Weight of Fabrics by the 
Weight of One Square Inch. 

Multiply 36 inches, the length of a yard, by the width 
of the fabric, which will give the number of square inches 
in the yard. Multiply the number of square inches in the 
yard by the number of grains one square inch weighs, which 
will give the number of grains in the yard. Divide the 
number of grains in the yard by the number of grains in 
one ounce, which is 437?; the quotient obtained will repre- 
sent the weight of the fabric in ounces. 

Example: 

If a sample weighs 5^ grains to the square inch, what 
will one yard of the fabric weigh, 27 inches wide? 
36 X 27 = 072 square inches to the yard. 
972 X 5i = 5103 grains to the yard. 
5103 -I- 437s = 11.664 ounces to the yard. — Answer. 



the self-instruct 

Weight Table en Grains. 
g ins (Troy) = 16 oz. or 1 pound avoirdu] 
. uus = 12 oz. or | pound. 

grains = > oz. or £ pound. 

_ .-.ins = nd. 

grains = 2 oz. or £ pound. 

grains = 1 oz. or ^V pound. 

- _ ains = i oz. or & pound. 

. grains = J oz. or -V pound. 

The above table will be found useful when calculating 
weight of fabrics. 

Rule to Fixp the Average Picks pee Inch 
en Uneven Cloths 

If the cloth is unevenly woven, or thicker in one place 
than another, take the number of picks to each count of the 
pick-glass in different places of the cloth where it is thickest 
and thinest. and add them all together: their sum divided 
by the number of times the picks were counted, will giye, at 
an average, the picks per count. 

Thus, supposing the pick-glass has one-fourth inch open 
space, if there are 12 picks in one place of the cloth. 15 in 

her, 14 in a third. 16 in a fourth, and 13 in a fifth: then 
12+15-|-14-|-16-T-13=70, which divided by 5, the number of 
counts, will give 14 picks as the avei g unt; and 14X4= 
i inch as the average in the cloth. 

pton Yarn Table. 

vard= 1 thread, or round of the cotton reel. 
■ = 18 "• = 1 skein, or ley. 
" = S ••=:••=: l :>o..or hank. 

=1008 •* =126 •' =18 "• =1 spindle. 
The reel for cotton yarn is 54 inches round. SO threads 
or rounds of which make a skein, ley or rap: ? skeins make 
a number or hank, generally contracted No. : and 18 of these 
N s. make, what is cal" -pindle. The length of the 

ral subdivisions of the spindle of cotton yarn will be 
found in the above table. 



textile designing. 135 

Linen Yarn Table. 
2i yds.= 1 split, one ell, or 45 inches long (double). 



50 


= 20 


= 1; 


por 


ter or heer. 


300 


= 120 


= 6 




= 1 cut. 


600 


= 240 


= 12 




= 2 =1 heer. 


3600 


= 1440 


= 72 




— 12 = 6 =1 slip or hank. 


?2oo 


=2880 


= 144 




= 24 =12 =2 =1 hesp. 


14400 


=5760 


=288 




=48 =24 =4 =2 =1 spindle 



Linen yarn is spun from flax, and reeled on a ten-quar- 
ter or 90 inch reel, and tied up into cuts of 120 threads or 
rounds of the reel; and 18 of these cuts represent a spindle. 
The spindle of linen yarn, however, admits of other subdi- 
visions, which, with the quantity contained in each, are 
shown in the above table. 

The fineness of linen yarn is commonly estimated by 
the weight of a spindle, hesp, or hank. By comparing the 
lengths of the spindles of cotton and linen together, it will 
be seen that the former exceeds the latter by 720 yards. 

Cloth Measure Table. 

2i in. (inches) = 1 nail, marked - na. 
4 nails = 1 quarter of a yard, qr. 

3 quarters = 1 Ell Flemish, E. Fl. 

4 quarters = 1 yard, yd. 

5 quarters = 1 Ell English, E. E. • 

Cloth measure is used for measuring all kinds of cloth, 
ribbons, and other articles sold by the yard. 

The preceding tables are all that we deem proper to be 
published in a work of this kind, and which will be found 
practical in every respect to which they are applicable. 

Knowing from past observations that many of the tables 
heretofore published in works relative to the textile indus- 
try, have been of little or no use, we have borne this in mind 
and have compiled for this work only such tables as we 
know from experience in teaching the rudiments of design- 
ing, will prove the most useful to beginners in making their 
yarn and weight calculations. In these tables we have 



136 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

given several original features which were never published 
before. If we deemed it advisable, we could insert many 
other tables, but to do so. would, we believe, be of no mate- 
rial benefit, while they might prove more an injury than 
good to the beginner, by inducing- him to depend too much 
on them, instead of fitting himself capable of figuring out 
his required results, and thus be placed, at times, in an em- 
barrassing situation when not having printed tables before 
him as a ready-reference. Therefore, as before inferred, 
we consider the tables here given, are all that is advisable 
in a work of this character, and that the information given 
in the preceding chapters is sufficient to teach the beginner 
in making his own estimates, for anything required in this 
line of calculating, which will certainly be far more com- 
mendable than having to depend on printed tables. 

RAW OR TRAM AND ORGANZINE SILK YARNS. 

We have not, as yet. treated on these yarns; suffice it 
to say that, they are numbered according to the number of 
drachms that 1,000 yards weigh. The drachm referred to 
is the avoirdupois and not the apothecaries' weight. It is 
T 1 6 of an avoirdupois ounce, or 27.34375 grains troy. Hence 
if 1,000 yards weigh one drachm or one-sixteenth of an 
ounce, 16,000 yards will weigh sixteen ounces or one pound. 
Therefore, 16,000 yards of No. l's raw silk will weigh one 
pound; or, in other words, a number represents 16,000 yards, 
which is the standard or basis for calculating these yarns. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 137 



CHAPTER XXI. 

WEAVING RIGHT AND LEFT-HAND TWILLS, ON CAM AND 
CHAIN LOOMS. 

In the weaving of twills, it is usually necessary to have 
them run with the twist of the warp, in order to have the 
twill show up full and round, otherwise it will look flat and 
not appear sufficiently above the face of the filling threads. 
For instance, in a weave which throws the same amount of 
warp and filling on both sides of the cloth, or in other words 
is equally balanced in the warp, it will be noticed that the 
twill on one side of the cloth looks flat, while on the other 
side, it looks full and round. The former, is the back or 
wrong side of the cloth, the twill running the reverse of the 
twist; the latter, is the face or right side, the twill running 
with the twist of the warp yarn. Hence, it will be seen, if 
the warp is spun with a right-hand twist, the twill should 
run to the right; and, if spun with a left-hand twist, it 
should run to the left. 

With the old-style treadle or cam loom, there are two 
ways of producing those results: one is by the manner of 
drawing-in the warp, the other is by the manner of hitching 
or strapping the treadles to the harnesses. In being gov- 
erned by the former method, draw in the warp the usual 
way, commencing on No. 1 harness and working across to 
the back, drawing a thread on each harness in succession, 
will throw the twill one way; while commencing on No. 4 
harness and working across to the front, drawing a thread 
on each harness in succession, will throw the twill in an 

18 



138 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

opposite direction. In being governed by the latter method, 
draw in the warp the usual way, and hitch up the treadles 
as represented by Figs. 1 and 2, allowing the straight lines 
to represent the treadles, and the figures thus 1, 2, 8 } 4, the 
order of hitching them to the harnesses. The figures thus 
1, 2, 3, 4 r represent the harness numbers. 



~H 




Fig. 1. 




JO 


Jf 






t¥* 


3 






>— i 


2 






o# 


1 


Fig. 2. 




M 


1 






O? 


■j 






i—< 


S 







4 

Fig. 1 represents the number of a treadle hitched to a 
corresponding number of a harness, which will throw the 
twill one way; while Fig. 2 represents the treadles hitched 
up just the reverse, that is, treadles 4, 3, 2, 1, are hitched 
to harnesses 1, 2, 3, 4 respectively, this will throw the twill 
in an opposite direction. 

If it were desired to produce the regular broken twill, 
draw in the warp thus 1, 3, 2, 4, and hitch up the treadles 
as illustrated by Fig. 1 ; or, the warp may be drawn in the 
usual way (straight across), and the treadles hitched up 
thus 1, 3, 2, 4, which crosses the straps on treadles 2 and 
3, and will produce the same result. This latter change 
may be made also by hitching up the harnesses at the top 
thus 1, 3, 2, 4, and hitching the treadles up in their regular 
order, straight across. 

With a fancy or chain loom, the twill of the fabric is 
governed by the manner of building the harness chain, or 
the way it is put on the chain cylinder. For instance, sup- 
pose we buid a harness chain after the following weave, 



TEXTILE DESIGNING, 139 

which, in the position it now stands, shows the twill Tun- 
ning to the right: Take twelve bars of chain, place them 
on the chain rack, take the links off on one side, strip the 
bars free from the rollers and tubes for the required number 
of harnesses; now commence at the back or last harness of 
the weave, at the top, and build lengthwise of the chain, 
thus 1 down, 3 up, 3 down, 2 up, 2 down, 1 up; or, width- 
wise, thus 1 down, 1 up, 2 down, 2 up, 3 down, 3 up. In 
either case, continue in that manner until the vacant space 
on the bars is filled with the required rollers and tubes, after 
which replace the links and pins. 

Harness Chain. 

§-000 00—0 § 

g_00 00—0-0 ■ § 

Weave. $-0 — 00—0-00 § 

5"3H£S H -y"2 • § — oo—o-ooo § 

■ ju^b'b: n ibdbb § nn — 0-000 ■ $ 

DCGBB '□■' BBB s o 

nznKXMnnran S— 00— 0-000 8 

L.BBnnBnBBBnn g nA : g 

■■^□■□■■■ncia $-00 — 0-000 — — & 

BnnB'::BBBnn: "B S n r> nan n S 

n :b. bbbulj~bb §-0 — 0-000 § 



db iBBBnnnBBn * n n <? 

■riBBBnnnBBnn s <-MJ00 00 § 

1—0-000 00 § 

§-0-000 00 i 

§—000 00—0 ■ 8 



* tc ic j- o» CL -4 ao cc o — ts 



Now, if we pick up this chain by the top bar or the one 
fartherest from us, and hold it up before us, we find that 
the weave thus placed on the chain bars, stands in the same 
position as the weave or chain draft does on paper. This 
will be better understood on looking at the above illustra- 
tions of weave and harness chain. . 

The chain is now attached to the chain cylinder of the 
loom, in the following manner: If the cylinder revolves 
outward from the upperside, run the chain on from the un- 
derside; if it revolves outward from the underside, run the 
chain on from the upperside. In the former case attach the 
lower end of the chain first, as it now stands, this will run 
the weave upwards, from the bottom, producing it in the 
same position as now; in the latter case attach the upper 
end first, this will run the weave downwards, from the top. 



140 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

producing it in an opposite position, although in looking at 
the chain on the two cylinders, it would really stand in the 
same position in both instances. If, on starting the loom 
in either case, the twill should be found weaving in the 
wrong direction, take off the chain, and the end that comes 
off from the cylinder last, replace back on to the cylinder 
from the opposite side of which it came off. This operation 
will reverse the position of the chain and also the twill in 
weaving. 

In building a harness chain for any loom, place the 
links with both ends in on one, and both ends out on the 
other alternately. This is the right method and if carried 
into effect, there will be no trouble arrising from the run- 
ning of the chain. 

From the above remarks and illustrations, the beginner 
will, we believe, be able to see and* comprehend what is re- 
quired, in operating cam and chain looms, to produce both 
right and left-hand twills. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 141 



CHAPTER XXIL 

DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING WOOL MIXES, 
CONCLUSION. 

In mills running on fancy cassimeres, flannels, and 
ladies' dress goods which are mostly composed of mixes, a 
great deal depends upon these mixes for producing the de- 
sired effects, as well as the success of the mills. In order 
to be a successful designer in one of those mills, the design- 
er must be thoroughly conversant in originating and imita- 
ting mixes, otherwise he will prove himself a failure in the 
undertaking, even though he may have proved himself a 
successful designer in other mills running on goods of solid 
colors and fancy double and twist yarns. 

To be successful in originating mixes, the designer 
should be well versed with colors, know what order to as- 
sign them to, what class will produce the liveliest effect 
when combined, and what ones will produce the mildest 
effect; also to know what proportion one color will bear 
with another in producing the desired result. No rule can 
be accurately given, or table arranged by which those re- 
sults can be obtained, or a mix of two or more colors may 
be combined to form another color or shade, unless the dif- 
ferent colors are represented by samples. 

In imitating a mix, some idea of the colors and shades 
in the combination may be formed by examination of the 
fibres. Then with a set of scales that will weigh grains, — 



142 THE SELF-INSTRUCTOR, 

apothecaries' scales are the most convenient — proceed in the 
following manner: Suppose that we have a sample of cloth 
in which there is a mix we wish to imitate, or in other 
words, the sample is all of one kind of mix and that we 
wish to imitate the goods. By a close examination of the 
threads the mix appears to be composed of three colors, 
black, orange and red; the black greatly predominates, the 
orange and red appear equally divided, each of a small per- 
centage, so we will call the black 80$, and the orange and 
red 10$ each. Now weight 80 grains of black wool, and 10 
grains each of orange and red wool. With a pair of hand 
cards or strippers, mix the colors thoroughly and compare 
with sample. If the mix obtained proves to be the right 
shade, then use grains as pounds and lay out for the stock 
accordingly. If the mix should not prove to - be the right 
shade, add more, or less of the color or colors as the case 
requires, keeping an account of the grains. After getting 
the mix to shade satisfactory, arrange it in a book for that 
purpose with the per cent, of each color recorded by the side 
of it, then give the mix a distinguishing number. After 
some of the mix has been spun, procure several yards of the 
yarn and wind it into a small skein, which also place by the 
side of the mix and write down the number of runs the 
yarn was spun. By following out this plan with every mix 
made, a practical ready-reference may be obtained for pres- 
ent and future use. 

Following is a record of a few desirable mixes, which 
were made and successfully used by the author in the man- 
ufacture of various grades of fancy cassimeres. 

No. 1=75$ black, 15 orange, 10 plum. 

No. 2=85$ black, 10 green, 5 yellow. 

No. 3=50$ white, 40 dark olive brown, 10 plum. 

No. 4=50$ white, 25 black, 25 plum. 

No. 5=75$ olive brown, 15 plum, 10 white. 

No. 6=75$ black, 15 white, 10 orange. 

No. 7=75$ red brown, 20 black, 5 white. 

No. 8=85$ black, 15 orange. 

No. 9=75$ olive brown, 25 orange. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING. 143 

No. 10=25$ red brown, 25 black, 40 olive br., 10 orange. 

No. 11=50$ red brown, 50 white. 

No. 12=50$ red brown, 50 black. 

No. 13=45$ black, 45 olive, 10 white. 

No. 14=45$ red brown, 45 white, 10 orange. 

No. 15=46$ red brown, 46 black, 8 yellow. 

No. 16=75$ red brown, 25 white. 

No. 17=75$ dark olive, 25 white.. 

No. 18=45$ red brown, 35 black, 20 yellow. 

No. 19=50$ black, 40 olive brown, 10 orange. 

No. 20=50$ black, 50 olive. 

No. 21=85$ black, 9 white, 6 red. 

No. 22=50$ white, 40 seal brown, 10 navy blue. 

No. 23=25$ black, 25 white, 25 blue, 25 dark green. 

No. 24=50$ white, 35 blue, 15 red. 

No. 25=80$ black, 10 white, 5 yellow, 5 red. 

No. 26=80$ black, 10 orange, 10 red. 

No. 27=90$ black, 5 orange, 5 red. 

No. 28=92$ black, 8 red. 

No. 29=95$ dark blue, 5 orange. 

No. 30=95$ dark blue, 5 garnet red. 

From the above it will be seen that a plum color is used 
in a good share of those mixes. In each instance this color 
was used as so many pounds of black wool, for the purpose 
of enlivening the effect of the mix. For instance, a mix 
consisting of black and white may present a dull and dead- 
like appearance, while if a small per cent, of plum be added 
it will give the mix a bright and lively appearance. 

CONCLUSION. 

In the foregoing pages of this work we have given to 
the craft the result of twenty years' practice and study of 
the Art. During said time we have filled the position as 
Weaver, Designer and Superintendent, and for the last ten 
years have acted as private adviser and instructor for 
Designers, Superintendents and Agents of mills in nearly 
every state of the Union. This has placed us in a position 
of seeing and knowing the deficiency of knowledge among 



144: TTTET SET^F-INSTKXTCTOR, 

the craft in their respective callings. Our business as a 
publisher also, and connestion with textile journals, has 
enabled us to keep well posted in relation to other authors 
and their works, as well as in the textile industry. From 
these available sources of information, together with prac- 
tical experience and the encouragement received from the 
txtended sales of our former works, we were induced to 
write the present work, which we trust will prove an im- 
portant adjunct in this branch of the textile industry. And 
as far as our knowledge in manufacturing extends, we are 
certain there is no more important and profitable branch 
than that of designing. Although this work has not been 
written with the expectation that every one who will pur- 
chase a copy can become a successf ul designer by the peru- 
sal of it, even though they understand thoroughly its teach- 
ings, yet we feel assured and do expect that it will be found 
clear,, methodical, thorough, and useful as well as a faithful 
instructor. Nothing now remains but to give utterance to 
the wish that the reception accorded to our work, by the 
crafty may correspond with the careful labor bestowed upon, 
it, by the author. 




I3L 



yea 
[in 

dir 


'p-e-f *| § 5 'h 


CO 00 00 oo i 00 00 00 

h|0 OI010.0 

ole a\ Cn Iw 1 10 1 H 


Mi 

> 

W 

CD 

t- 1 
CC 



H 
O 

© 
O 
O 







ascertain any day of the week 
ny year of the present century, 
c in table of years fur the year 
died, and under the months are 
res which refer to the corre- 
nding Azures atthehead ofthe 
lmnsoidays. Exnm}>le: To find 
it lay of the week Sept.2fell on 
he year 1873. In the table of 
rs look for 1873andin a parallel 

1 under Sept. is fiz. 1, which 
jets to col. 1, in which it will be 
n that Sept -J fell cm Tuesday. 


00 000000000000 

10 -.-h.MWWO 

w Ln 1-^1 , - 14^ Ilo I^J 
00 CO 00 00 00 00 00 


A CENTENNIAL CALENDAR. 

• ascertaining any Day of the Week for any given time within 
the Present Century. 

This table will give the day of the week on which a person was born. 


co 1 CO 00 OO CO 00 CO 

ooi^i :^» oo h 1 l*o 

CO CO CO CO OO CO CO 

+. 4. J> Uj ,4- 4- W 
vO OJ on O 1 10 1 h ui 


CO CO 00! 00 00| CO 00 
on on on on on J> |J> 
0/1 , J> 1 m 1 lOO I^J 1 C7\ 


00; 00! CO 00 CO, 00 00 
On O O ON on On on 
ONlon 1 [0 1 M IvO 1 COl^O 


W 30 00 

oo!j> 1 o 


001 00 00 00 

« M O O 

onI 10 1 00 *. 


13 


OOOOOOOO COICOCO 

^i Ki ^0 oni^j onOn 

^J 1 H lOO 1^0 1 ISO lOO 


oo oo m co o) oo oo 

on on J> J>- J> OJ OJ 
on 1 to 1 oo 1 o> 10 1 CM to 


oooooo.oococooo 
00 coKo Ko coKj m 
OJ 1 10 lO 1 Col M Ion 1 J> 


OO OO CO 00 00 oo oo 

co j co ^j Sj c> c a. 

+- O C.| ij 01 -t- I 


> 


00 00 00 00 oo'oo 00 
^0 ho 00 001 CO 00 
J> loo 1 ivO 1-0 1 OMon 

vOOO» CO 00 CO 00 
Q NO 1 • VO vo Kc NO 
InO t • Ion 1 ool^ 1 M 


• • • • Co co co 

• 1 • 1 • 1 • On 1 10 CC 


«o [-*- |o|«|u> |tn|»*|- | - |vi |u> |»|on|o->|4* I31 Jan. 


<n |<i 1 » I-*. 1 o| m |c« |,g |4v J w | cn|ui 1 n 1 - |vr [28 Feb. 


3\| m [vi |on |vi 1 10 |-t>- 1 . jj> |oo | o\|ta | n | m |^t I31 Mar. 


m|.*.|o\| m |ert|t#i|-a|. |«*|o\|»|,". |tn|+. |c» I30 April. 


•+■ | o>| ■- |oo |on |^i | (o | . | w | M |+. |o |vr 1 a|<«|3i May. 


m j n |+. 1 o| - |oo |m | • |m |-e. |^i | ov|w | to | ~ 130 June. 


» |+. | o| ►. |oj |m|^jj| . |<r|o\| u | «. |u»|+. |;* I31 July. 


en |«j | (o \+ | o| « |oj | . |oo |. N \m \+- | « |<i | 0I31 Aug. 


- |cm|oa|v>| 10 |j> | o| ■ |o\|m| ~-|^|4> |t» |'K |3oSept. 


oo|or*|^i|N |4^ |;>|« |. |.M|»j| w | % »|.ov|t«|*. I31 Oct. 


On| 1- |oj |m j^j | n |4> | • l-e. |oo | o|ot. | m | « |vt I30 Ncv. 


- |oi|tn |<i | n |+.| o| • ['0|ui| - |«a \+. |e» 1 k I31 Dec. 


co 00 tc N ic to to ic ic tc *o tc i-i m 1-1 h^ m k m r-i i-i 1-1 

->C — 3c-ir.ii rr- i: to m» c cc x -1 r. .1 *■ 0: to " occgc-j 


M 
- CI— CC MM 1 


co co tc tc » to to tc tc tc to i* h> m m m t-> m m h> m i-*- 
MOffloc»i03Cjif>.i»tci-'Ois)oo-afficnif>.6stoHO!00o-^ 


ta t» tag h3 g H I 

r; ci — cc tci- 1 1 


irj 1^^ h3 g;03anbgH3^ 1-3 g ao dd tg 1-3^1-3 gsBao tag HJcd ta= 

^KKIClCiOtCIClClCICIcMMpi-MMMHHP 


- Ci 4- co tc m 1 


5oh^^^^;/>co^^^r^xx^h-3 : ^ h ^gcecctT;i^^ f Jgc»ce>Tjh3 

aOJtOMIClCMlCtClCtJIOHHMHMMMpp-H 

— O ffl co -j or. 01 4- 0; ic ^ cc cr co -1 - it 4- co HOtsoo-qfflOi^stOH 


- 


SB OO it] iJ -5 -: o> X x rr _: -; _: o> y. •/. -^ _; -; j ^> X 00 153 !-3 ^ i-J g J- '■ X 
W 00 tC tC tC tC tC *S tC tC tC tC t-i -■ M KJ h^ i-i 1-' h^ i-> M 

HO co 00 ^t cs ci n^ u tc h- c 'j: x -J r. ii — 0; ic i- 1 O go -a - s\ — w tc i— 


01 


CO OS tC tC IC 10 IC IC JO tC tC IC ^ M M H 1 M M M M h- M 

i- 1 O O X -t CT. 01 *- W tC — C C CC -] SI 01 4- CC tc h- 1 O O CO ^ C. 01 4- CO I* M 


a 


^gXGc»rji^^^gi/!i»iTji^^^giXcniTji-3^^g(XcotTj(Jj3i-agCC 

COCClilClCtOICtCtClOlCtC^i-'hJl-il-'kJl-'MI-'l-' 

— cc :5 x ~i r. 01 — cc io p-i r c x -i r. oi — c; 10 — r c ce ~i r. ot — co ro m 


»i 



J-"D